Brain Tumor

Published Date : Feb 2024
Category : Oncology
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"NeuroMindscape: Launching Innovations in Brain Tumor Discovery and Treatment"

Abnormal tumors in or around the brain that impair brain health and function are known as brain tumors. Just one-third of them are cancerous; the rest are benign or malignant. While secondary tumors, also known as metastatic brain tumors, are located outside the brain and then spread to it, primary tumors are located inside the brain.

In a person's lifetime, less than 1% of them are likely to get a malignant brain or spinal cord tumor. Around 80 to 90 percent of initial central nervous system (CNS) cancers are brain tumors.

The incidence of primary brain tumors is higher in women (58.7%) than in men (41.3%), with non-malignant tumors being more common in women (64.4%) and malignant tumors more common in men (55.8%). Except for some forms including glioblastoma, malignant gliomas, embryonal tumors, and germ cell tumors, men have greater death rates and typically worse survival rates from malignant brain tumors. Age, ethnicity, and general health all affect the survival rates of brain tumors. For children under fourteen, it is over 96%; for individuals over forty, it is 97%; and for those between 15 and 39, it is 87%. The five-year survival rate is the proportion of persons who survive for at least five years after diagnosis.

Glioblastoma patients have an average survival period of 12 to 18 months; just 25% of patients survive longer than a year, and only ~5% survive longer than five years. Nonetheless, just 1% of patients live for at least ten years, and the longest GBM survivor's lifespan is over twenty years. Children are commonly affected with benign pilocytic astrocytoma and malignant medulloblastoma whereas the cerebral cortex is where most adult CNS malignancies originate. Glioblastoma is the most prevalent primary malignant tumor in adults.

Worldwide, the prevalence of brain cancer is rising in both sexes. Gliomas are detected in approximately six cases per 100,000 persons in the United States annually.

Types of Brain tumors

  1. Primary Tumor - Tumors that arise from the brain's tissues or the brain's surrounding tissues are referred to as primary brain tumors.

For instance, 80% of adults suffer from gliomas (malignant brain tumors), which include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas.

Other benign brain tumor includes Chordomas, Craniopharyngiomas, Gangliocytomas, Glomus jugulare, Meningiomas, Pineocytomas, Pituitary adenomas, and Schwannomas.

  1. Secondary Tumor - A malignant tumor that begins in another area of the body, such as the breast, lung, or colon, and then travels to the brain is known as a secondary brain tumor, or brain metastasis. A secondary brain tumor is also called metastatic cancer. Gliomas, the most common adult brain tumor, are derived from glial cells, comprising astrocytes, ependymal cells, and oligodendroglial cells, accounting for ~78% of malignant brain tumors.

For Example- Astrocytomas, Ependymomas, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), Medulloblastomas, and Oligodendrogliomas are some of the types of malignant brain tumors.

Stages of Brain Tumor

Researchers have distinguished four stages of brain tumor development to provide a better understanding of the tumor's progression.

  1. Grade I (Low Grade): These tumors are typically slow-growing and considered benign. They are well-differentiated and have a good chance of being cured with surgery. Tumor types such as Astrocytoma pilocytic, Craniopharyngioma, Gangliocytoma, Ganglioglioma, etc
  2. Grade II (Low to Intermediate Grade): These tumors are also relatively slow-growing, but they may have a slightly higher chance of recurrence compared to Grade I tumors. They may infiltrate nearby tissues. for instance, “Diffuse" Astrocytoma, Pineocytoma, Pure oligodendroglioma  
  3. Grade III (Intermediate Grade): These tumors are malignant and more aggressive. They are likely to invade surrounding tissues and have a higher likelihood of recurrence. Treatment often involves a combination of surgery, radiation, and sometimes chemotherapy. For Example, Amorphous astrocytoma, Electrodermal, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma anaplastic, etc
  4. Grade IV (High Grade): These tumors are the most aggressive and malignant. They grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues extensively, and are associated with a poor prognosis. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an example of a Grade IV tumor. Treatment typically involves surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

Additionally, primary brain tumors are not staged like other cancers. The WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, which provides a "grade" of 1-4 based on how aggressive the tumor is expected to behave clinically, is used to group them. The lowest and usually least aggressive grade of tumors is called grade 1, which includes certain meningiomas. The highest and most aggressive grade of tumors is grade 4, which includes glioblastoma.


Damage to the genes on chromosomes that control cell division and correct errors is what leads to brain tumors. Certain people might have partial genetic abnormalities from birth, and external influences could exacerbate the harm. Rapid growth and immune system-overpowering tumors produce chemicals that prevent the immune system from identifying aberrant cells. Additionally, they generate angiogenesis factors, which encourage blood vessel formation and hence heighten the tumor’s dependence on these vessels.

Signs and Symptoms of Brain Tumour

Brain tumor cancer symptoms include excruciating headaches, convulsions, trouble thinking, speaking, and articulating, altered personality traits, paralysis, weakness, loss of balance, vision, hearing, tingling in the face, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, and confusion and disorientation. Depending on where the tumor is located, these symptoms change.

Diagnostic Analysis

"Assessment Innovations for Brain Tumor: Facilitating Personalised Patient Care"

The global brain tumor diagnostics market is being driven by technological breakthroughs in non-invasive diagnostic procedures. These developments not only support the continued need for brain cancer diagnosis, but they also provide enormous potential for advancements in medical science. Below are the main diagnostic categories that contribute significantly to the market depending on numerous factors such as the advancements in diagnostic technologies, and the prevalence of the disease healthcare infrastructure.

However, imaging techniques used for diagnosis include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT or CAT scan).  Other MRI sequences help the surgeon plan the resection of the tumor based on the location of the normal nerve pathways in the brain. Intraoperative MRI also is used during surgery to guide tissue biopsies and tumor removal.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is used to examine the tumor’s chemical profile and determine the nature of the lesions seen on the MRI.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) helps detect recurring brain tumors.

A biopsy may occasionally be the sole method available for providing a conclusive diagnosis of a brain tumor. After the tumor is biopsied by a neurosurgeon, the pathologist grades the tumor based on its appearance and determines whether it is benign or malignant.

Neurological Exam- A neurological examination looks for potential problems with the brain by evaluating several areas of the brain, such as vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength, and reflexes. Although it cannot identify brain cancers, it can identify brain disorders, which aids medical professionals in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition.

Spinal tap (lumbar puncture) - Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted from the area surrounding the spine by the medical professional using a tiny needle during this process. A lab examines this fluid to look for malignant cells. Doctors conduct this treatment when they have cause to suspect that the tumor has spread to the tissues covering your brain, known as the meninges.

Biopsy - A biopsy is usually required for the diagnosis of brain cancer. This is done during surgery by a neurosurgeon, or if the tumor is difficult to reach, a stereotactic approach may be used. Rarely, a biopsy can be done without surgery utilizing CT or MRI imaging techniques, giving a more precise way to identify brain cancer.

Top Players of Diagnostic Kits

The global Brain Tumor diagnostic market is highly competitive and owing to the number of large market players with a global presence below in the given table there is a list of top manufacturers of diagnostic testing of brain tumors globally.

Diagnostic Market Players for Brain Tumor

     Diagnostic Market Players for Brain Tumor

Imaging Studies


PET Scan Equipment 

GE Healthcare

Leica Biosystems

Siemens Healthineers

Siemens Healthineers

BD (Becton, Dickinson, and Company)

General Electric (GE) Healthcare

Philips Healthcare

Hologic, Inc.

Philips Healthcare

Toshiba Medical Systems

Roche Diagnostics

Positron Corporation

Hitachi Medical Systems

Ventana Medical Systems

Hitachi Medical Systems

Shimadzu Corporation

Sakura Finetek USA, Inc.

Canon Medical Systems Corporation

Hologic, Inc.

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Shimadzu Corporation

Elekta AB

Milestone Medical

Mediso Medical Imaging Systems

Varian Medical Systems

Intuitive Surgical

Naviscan, Inc.

Carestream Health

Olympus Corporation

United Imaging Healthcare

Neusoft Medical Systems

C.R. Bard (now part of BD)

Neusoft Medical Systems

Samsung Medison


Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA), a Novartis company

Fujifilm Medical Systems

Boston Scientific Corporation

Brain Biosciences

PerkinElmer, Inc.

Cook Medical

Fujifilm Holdings Corporation

Bruker Corporation

Devicor Medical Products

Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation (now part of Canon Medical)



Imaging Studies


PET Scan

Siemens Magnetom Skyra

Olympus Radial Jaw 4™

Siemens Biograph

GE Healthcare Signa

Bard Magnum®

GE Discovery

Philips Brilliance CT

Cook Medical Quick-Core®

Philips Vereos

Toshiba Aquilion

Hologic ATEC®

Toshiba Celesteion

Siemens Biograph

Bard Magnum®


GE Healthcare Discovery

Medtronic StealthStation™

Mediso AnyScan

Philips BrightView

Elekta Neuromag®

Positron Exact

Siemens Symbia

Mammotome® Revolve™

NeuroLogica CereTom

GE Healthcare Discovery MR750w

Medtronic Achieve™

Cubresa NuPET

Siemens MAGNETOM Prisma

Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD) SurePath™

Canon Medical Systems Celestion

Philips Ingenia

Hologic LOCalizer™

Siemens Biograph

Siemens MAGNETOM Terra

Siemens Acuson S3000™

GE Discovery

Philips Affiniti

GE Healthcare LOGIQ™ E10


Siemens Acuson

Medtronic StealthStation™


Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis



Zeiss Cirrus




DiseaseLandscape Insights supports industry leaders in the creation of diverse diagnostic kits. Furthermore, the use of state-of-the-art technology to improve present diagnostic processes and the dissemination of data on current market players and their products to comprehend market dynamics.

Treatment Analysis

Brain tumor treatment depends on factors like tumor location, size, type, number, age, and overall health. Benign tumors have been successfully removed with surgery, but growth may be limited. Adult-tolerated treatments like radiation therapy may prevent normal brain development in children under five. Healthcare providers often use a combination of therapies, with treatment options varying based on the patient's condition.

Brain surgery (craniotomy): Neurosurgeons remove the tumor when feasible. Reduce harm to the parts of your brain that are still working, they operate extremely carefully, sometimes even operating on the patient while the patient is awake.

Radiation therapy: In this kind of treatment, high doses of X-rays either reduce the tumor or kill the cells causing the brain tumor.

Radiosurgery: This kind of radiation treatment targets the tumor with highly concentrated radiation beams, such as proton or gamma rays. Since no incision is necessary, it is not considered surgery.

For instance, acoustic neuroma tumors are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, a kind of radiation therapy. Small tumors with a diameter of fewer than 2.5 centimeters are frequently treated using this method. Elderly patients or those unable to undergo surgery due to health concerns also benefit from radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy: Anticancer medications used in this therapy destroy cancer cells in your body and brain. Chemotherapy is administered as a tablet or by injection into a vein. Following surgery, the doctor can advise chemotherapy to eradicate any cancer cells that may have remained or to stop any tumor cells from proliferating.

Immunotherapy: Biological therapy, another name for immunotherapy, is a kind of cancer treatment that boosts your body's immune system. The major goal of the therapy is to boost your immune system so that it functions better.

Targeted therapy: Drugs used in this treatment specifically target cancer cells' characteristics without endangering healthy cells. If you are experiencing symptoms of nausea and exhaustion after chemotherapy and find it difficult to tolerate the medication, your doctor may suggest targeted therapy.

Market leaders reshaping the landscape and driving innovation in the pursuit of improved health outcomes.

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Market Players

Radiation Therapy

Targeted Therapy Drugs



Varian Medical Systems


Bristol Myers Squibb

Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD)

Elekta AB


Merck & Co.

Baxter International Inc.

Accuray Incorporated



Terumo Corporation

ViewRay Inc.



Roche Diagnostics

Siemens Healthineers

Bristol Myers Squibb


Siemens Healthineers

IBA (Ion Beam Applications)

Eli Lilly and Company


Stryker Corporation

Mevion Medical Systems

Merck & Co.

Eli Lilly and Company

Elekta AB

ProTom International

Genentech (a member of the Roche Group)

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals

Varian Medical Systems

Hitachi Medical Systems



Accuray Incorporated

Shinva Medical Instrument Co., Ltd.



GE Healthcare


Treatment Products

Treatment Products

Radiation therapy

Targeted Therapy Drugs

Chemotherapy Drugs

Immunotherapy Drugs


Avastin (bevacizumab)

Temodar (temozolomide)

Opdivo (nivolumab)

Elekta Infinity, Elekta Versa HD

Tafinlar + Mekinist (dabrafenib + trametinib)

Gleevec (imatinib)

Keytruda (pembrolizumab)


Inlyta (axitinib)

Avastin (bevacizumab)

Tafinlar + Mekinist (dabrafenib + trametinib)


Tagrisso (osimertinib), Imfinzi (durvalumab)

Zoladex (goserelin)

Tecentriq (atezolizumab)

Artiste, Primus

Opdivo (nivolumab)

Sutent (sunitinib)

Imfinzi (durvalumab)


Cyramza (ramucirumab)

Alimta (pemetrexed)

Bavencio (avelumab)

MEVION S250 Proton Therapy System

Tarceva (erlotinib), Alecensa (alectinib)

Eylea (aflibercept)

Cyramza (ramucirumab)

Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

Stivarga (regorafenib)

Neulasta (pegfilgrastim)

Libtayo (cemiplimab)


Alunbrig (brigatinib)

Taxotere (docetaxel)

Imlygic (talimogene laherparepvec)




Libtayo (cemiplimab)


The mechanism of action of Chemotherapy drugs provides a better understanding of one of the Brain Cancer treatment therapies.

Mechanism of action of temozolomide for the treatment of Brain Tumor

The above figure shows a General description of Temozolomide's mode of action. Temozolomide, or TMZ, causes a variety of outcomes. It methylates DNA in one sense, resulting in N7-methylguanine (N7-meG).

An oral alkylating drug called Temozolomide is frequently used to treat glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma.

New Therapies in development

Bioadhesive nanoparticles- Glioblastoma is an extremely aggressive and lethal type of brain cancer. A group of researchers from Yale and the University of Connecticut (UConn) has created a nanoparticle-based therapy that targets many culprits in the disease. The novel therapy makes use of bio-adhesive nanoparticles, which attach themselves to the tumor site and subsequently release the manufactured peptide nucleic acids they contain gradually. These peptide nucleic acids specifically target microRNAs, which are short RNA strands involved in the expression of genes.

Market Trends Analysis

Precision medicine and technical developments have been identified as major areas of focus in the market trend study for brain tumor detection and treatment. Personalized therapy techniques that consider the unique molecular and genetic features of individual brain tumors are being investigated by researchers and healthcare organizations increasingly. The incorporation of modern imaging technologies is improving early detection and diagnosis, such as MRIs and PET scans. To enhance treatment outcomes, targeted treatments and immunotherapies are also being studied in ongoing clinical trials. The investigation of molecularly focused treatments for glioblastoma, a frequent and aggressive brain tumor, is an illustration of this tendency.

According to data published by Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre on 15 November 2022, neurosurgery is undergoing a robotics revolution, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. It minimizes damage to healthy tissue by providing a precise, controlled environment. Robotics-assisted surgery reduces complications and enhances results as brain tumors become more intricate. Robotics is predicted to become more prevalent in neurosurgery as technology develops.

Competitive Analysis

  • To satisfy the growing need for early detection and improve their competitive position, leading companies in the international market have been focusing on new product launches and expanding their testing capabilities. In addition to that they are adopting organic and inorganic strategies for growth and expansion which majorly include drug discovery regulatory approval and inorganic strategies such as acquisition partnership and majorly focusing on collaboration to improve and grow their product portfolio.
  • On November 22, 2022, the partnership between Acuray and GE Healthcare first concentrated on resolving issues with the treatment of lung and brain cancers. The partnership seeks to improve radiation therapy's accessibility.

Most cancer patients worldwide undergo radiation therapy, with over one million in the US receiving it this year. However, there is a shortage of machines, with thirteen in the US and two in emerging markets.

  • On January 8, 2024, to boost innovation and set itself apart from competitors worldwide, GE HealthCare acquired MIM Software, a leading global supplier of AI and medical imaging analytic solutions for urology, molecular radiotherapy, radiation oncology, and diagnostic imaging.

Regulatory Framework for Brain Tumor

The regulatory framework for Brain Tumor is heavily facilitated by DiseaseLandscape Insights based on different countries’ regulatory norms. It offers data-driven insights that direct risk assessment, regulatory development, surveillance, import/export laws, research oversight, response to emergency planning, and collaboration across borders. Institutes and market players can effectively prevent, control, and respond to outbreaks of brain malignancy while making sure that the affected communities are safe and well-cared for by integrating Disease Landscape into the regulatory framework.

  • On 4th January 2023, the FDA designated the TriNetraTM-Glio blood test as a breakthrough device, facilitating the identification of brain tumors. In an announcement, this information was released by Datar Cancer Genetics, Inc.
  • On 12th June 2023 UCLA Health scientists developed a personalized vaccine that could potentially prolong the life of patients with glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of brain cancer, as the therapy awaits FDA approval.

Clinical Assessment

DiseaseLandscape Insights consulting firm provides valuable support in future market trends on the development of new pharmaceutical products. This support helps to streamline the planning and execution of clinical trials of novel medications and treatments, implement effective patient recruitment strategies, ensure compliance with regulatory regulations, and increase the likelihood of successful trial outcomes.

The below table gives information about some currently ongoing clinical trials, including their study titles and respective stages.


(Human Pharmacology)


(Therapeutic Exploratory Trail)


(Therapeutic Confirmatory Trial)


(Post Marketing Surveillance)

Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy Using Memory Enriched T Cells Lentivirally Transduced to Express an IL13Rα2-Targeting, Hinge-Optimized, 41BB-Costimulatory Chimeric Receptor and a Truncated CD19 for Children with Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Brain Tumors

Feasibility of [¹⁸F]-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) in Assessment of Malignant Brain Tumors

Performance of Elucirem® (Gadopiclenol) in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DSC-MRI) Perfusion of Brain Gliomas Phase IIIb Clinical Trial

Effect of Sugammadex for Reversal of Rocuronium-induced Neuromuscular Block on Perioperative Management of Awake Craniotomy

A Phase Ib/II, Open-label Study of NBM-BMX as Monotherapy or in Combination with Radiotherapy and Temozolomide in Subjects with Solid Tumors or Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

A Phase Ib/II, Open-label Study of NBM-BMX as Monotherapy or in Combination with Radiotherapy and Temozolomide in Subjects with Solid Tumors or Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

A Phase III Trial of Pre-Operative Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) Versus Post-Operative SRS for Brain Metastases

Impact of Propofol-Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia Versus Anesthesia with Sevoflurane on Long-term Outcomes with Patients Undergoing Elective Craniotomy for Primary Brain Tumours

A Phase I, Open-Label, Multicenter Clinical Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics &Preliminary Anti-Cancer Efficacy of ABM-1310 in Patients with BRAF V600-Mutant Relapsed &Drug Resistant Primary Malignant Brain Tumors

Safety and Imaging of Post-Operative Low Dose Versus Standard Dose Dexamethasone in Patients with Primary or Metastatic Brain Tumors: A Randomized, Double-blinded Feasibility Study

A Randomized Phase III Trial of Pre-Operative Compared to Post-Operative Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Patients with Respectable Brain Metastases

A Pilot Study of Dual Time Point FDG PET MR Imaging Optimization for the Evaluation of Brain Metastasis


DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) offers vital information, especially in the battle against brain tumors. A comprehensive number of services are provided by DiseaseLandscape Insights to assist the healthcare sector, its practitioners, researchers, and industry participants in enhancing patient outcomes and encouraging business development.

Using the resources of in-depth market research, DLI services offer useful information on the most recent advancements, therapeutic strategies, and emerging trends in the management of brain cancer. With the use of this data, healthcare professionals create focused plans, make wise choices, and give patients customized treatment. Furthermore, our services function as a spark for creativity and teamwork, promoting partnerships between researchers and industry participants to improve brain cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) supports all market players in establishing their greater foothold in the brain tumor disease industry.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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