Brain Aneurysms

Published Date : Nov 2023
Category : Neurodegenerative Disorders
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Brain Aneurysms (BA): Pathophysiology and Emerging Treatments with Disease Landscape Insights

A brain aneurysm (BA) is a condition with potentially fatal consequences that arise from the localized outburst of cerebral arteries.

According to NIH, Brain Aneurysms are 3.2% common worldwide, with a mean age of 50 and a gender ratio of 1:1 overall. After the age of 50, this ratio drastically shifts, with a growing female predominance that approaches a 2:1 ratio. This is believed to be caused by a decrease in circulating estrogen, which lowers the amount of collagen in vascular tissue. Ruptures that result in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) happen roughly once every 100,000 people. Certain populations—like the Finnish and Japanese populations—have higher rates of this. This, however, is not because aneurysms are more common in these populations. Aneurysmal SAH is thought to account for 0.4 to 0.6% of all-cause deaths overall, with a 20% mortality rate and an additional 30 to 40% morbidity in patients with known rupture.

As per the report of the Brain Aneurysm Organization, 1 in 50 persons, or 6.7 million people, in the US are thought to have an unruptured brain aneurysm. About 8 to 10 ruptures occur for every 100,000 people annually. Every year in the US, aneurysm ruptures affect about 30,000 people. Every 18 minutes, a brain aneurysm bursts. Brain aneurysms cause approximately 500,000 deaths worldwide each year, with half of the victims being under 50.

A Brain Aneurysm (BA) also called Cerebral Aneurysm or Cranial Aneurysm is a weak spot in a brain blood vessel that bulges. The cerebral aneurysm eventually burst as a result of this artery wall weakness. Brain bleeding, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, is a dangerous condition that results from a ruptured aneurysm. It is thought that aneurysms develop gradually as a result of blood flow across a weak point. Unnoticed small brain aneurysms are a common condition in many people.

Certain brain aneurysms, especially small ones, don't bleed or cause any other issues. This type of aneurysm is typically found during imaging examinations for different illnesses. Although they develop anywhere in the brain, most cerebral aneurysms originate in the main arteries that run along the base of the skull. Every cerebral aneurysm carries the risk of burst, which results in bleeding into the brain or surrounding tissues.

There are three types of Brain Aneurysm (BA). A Saccular Aneurysm, a spherical sac filled with blood that is connected to either the main artery or one of its branches is called a saccular aneurysm.  This is the most common type of cerebral aneurysm, also referred to as a berry aneurysm (because it looks like a berry hanging from a vine). A Fusiform Aneurysm, is an artery that has a fusiform aneurysm swell or protrudes on all sides and a Mycotic Aneurysm is an infection that occasionally affects the brain's arteries results in a mycotic aneurysm.  When an artery wall becomes weaker due to infection, a bulging aneurysm forms.  Aneurysms are also classified based on size as small, large, and giant with sizes 11mm, 11to15 mm, and 25mm in diameter respectively. 

The following conditions cause or increase the risk of BA: vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Marfan syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, arteriovenous malformation, alcohol use, and smoking. A rupture is most frequently caused by high blood pressure. Blood presses more forcefully against blood vessel walls when blood pressure is higher. Conditions that raise blood pressure and cause a ruptured brain aneurysm.

Signs and Symptoms of the Brain Aneurysm (BA)

Symptoms of Brain Aneurysm are based on whether the cell is ruptured or not or it is leaked.

Symptoms of Ruptured Brain Aneurysm include thunderclap headache (severe, abrupt onset), vomiting and nausea, tense neck, double or blurry vision, Light sensitivity (photophobia), Agencies, dilated pupil and drooping eyelid, discomfort behind and above the eyes, Perplexity, feebleness and/or numbness, consciousness is lost.

Most Unruptured Brain Aneurysms (intact) don't show any symptoms. If the bulge in the artery gets big enough, it may press on the brain tissue or surrounding nerves, resulting in headaches, altered vision, enlarged (dilated) pupils, tingling or numbness in the face or head, and Sensations of pain behind and above the eyes.

In Leaking Brain Aneurysm, A tiny amount of blood occasionally leaks into the brain from an aneurysm; this is known as a sentinel bleed. Days or weeks before a major rupture, a small leak in an aneurysm causes sentinel or warning headaches. However, very few people experience a sentinel headache before rupture.

Diagnosing Brain Aneurysm

The majority of cerebral aneurysms remain undetected until they burst or become apparent during imaging tests for other conditions.

To identify the best course of action for treating brain aneurysms, several tests are available. These include:

Imaging Test

  • Computed Tomography (CT): When a doctor wants to know if blood has seeped into the brain, this is frequently the first test they will order. CT creates two-dimensional images, or "slices," of the skull and brain using X-rays. Occasionally, before scanning to evaluate the arteries and search for a potential aneurysm, a contrast dye is injected into the bloodstream. Through a procedure known as CT angiography (CTA), blood flow in the brain arteries is seen in sharper, more detailed images. An unruptured or ruptured aneurysm's size, location, and shape all be seen on a CTA.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): An MRI detects brain hemorrhage by producing two- and three-dimensional detailed images of the brain using computer-generated radio waves and a magnetic field. The size, location, and shape of an aneurysm are seen with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which creates finely detailed images of the brain arteries.
  • Cerebral Angiography (CA): This imaging technique detects occlusions in the brain or neck arteries. Additionally, it detects weak points in an artery, such as an aneurysm. The test is used to pinpoint the precise location, dimensions, and form of an aneurysm as well as the reason behind the brain hemorrhage. To inject a small amount of contrast dye into the neck and brain arteries, the doctor passes a catheter—a long, flexible tube—typically from the groin arteries. The contrast dye aids in the X-ray's ability to clearly show any artery blockage and provide a detailed image of the appearance of an aneurysm.

Blood Test

  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: Cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord, is the fluid that is measured in this test. A spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture, is the most common method doctors use to obtain CSF. During this procedure, a thin needle is inserted into the lower back, or lumbar spine, and a small amount of fluid is removed and tested. The findings aid in identifying any brain hemorrhage. If bleeding is found, more testing would be required to pinpoint the precise source of the bleeding.

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Products

General Electric Company (GE Healthcare)

Revolution™ CT


Optima™ CT

Siemens Healthineers

Discovery™ CT

Med Imaging Solutions


Canon Medical Systems Corporation

SIGNA™ Pioneer

Gastro diagnostic.Ltd

SIGNA™ Architect

Radiance Imaging system

Discovery™ PET/CT

Fujifilm Holdings Corporation (FUJIFILM Medical Systems)

VUE Point™ FX


Discovery™ MI


Treatment Analysis of Brain Aneurysm (BA)

“Improving Health with Cutting-Edge Therapies”

Reducing or stopping the blood flow into the aneurysm is the primary objective of treatment for brain aneurysms. Emergency surgery is needed for a brain aneurysm that is leaking or has burst. Depending on the situation, the patient might not require treatment for an unruptured aneurysm.

Surgery, endovascular treatments, or additional medicinal therapies are frequently recommended to manage symptoms and prevent impairment from Brain Aneurysms.


For the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, a few surgical options are available. There is a chance that these procedures will cause damage to other blood vessels, that the aneurysm will recur and cause bleeding again, and that a stroke may occur.

  • Microvascular Clipping- This requires open brain surgery and involves cutting off the aneurysm's blood supply. The aneurysm's blood supply is cut off by a tiny, metal clip that resembles a clothespin that will be placed on the aneurysm's neck by a medical professional. It has been demonstrated that, depending on the aneurysm's size, shape, and location, clipping is quite successful. Fully severed aneurysms do not grow back.

Endovascular Treatment

  • Platinum Coil Embolization- Comparing this procedure to microvascular surgical clipping, it is less invasive. A hollow plastic tube called a catheter is inserted by a doctor into an artery, usually in the groin, and threaded through the body to the aneurysm in the brain.  Detachable coils, which are tiny spirals of platinum wire, will be inserted into the catheter by the physician and released into the aneurysm using a wire.  The aneurysm is blocked by the coils, which also lessen blood flow into the aneurysm. Aneurysms treated with coiling recur, so the procedure might need to be repeated more than once in the patient's lifetime.
  • Flow Diversion Devices- A small stent, or flexible mesh tube, akin to those inserted for heart blockages, inserted into the artery as an additional endovascular treatment option to lessen blood flow into the aneurysm. A hollow plastic tube called a catheter will be inserted by a medical professional into an artery, typically in the groin, and threaded through the body to the artery that contains the aneurysm. Large aneurysms and those that are not amenable to surgery or platinum coil embolization are treated with this procedure.
  • WEB Device for Brain Aneurysm- A catheter is threaded to the brain by a neurosurgeon or interventional neuroradiologist after being inserted into a blood vessel in the wrist or groin. The medical professional inserts a metal cube or sphere that resembles mesh through the catheter into the aneurysm. This functions similarly to a coil in that it seals the aneurysm, preventing blood flow and preventing it from growing or bursting.


Medicinal treatments in Brain Aneurysms aim to control symptoms and diminish complications. These include:

  • Anticonvulsants (antiseizure medications)- are used to stop seizures brought on by a ruptured aneurysm.
  • Calcium Channels Blocker- Drugs that block calcium channels lower the risk of stroke by preventing vasospasm.
  • If the build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (hydrocephalus) is causing harmful pressure on surrounding brain tissue, the brain may be surgically opened to insert a shunt, which directs cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to another location in the body.

Rehabilitation Counselling- After a subarachnoid hemorrhage, people frequently require occupational, speech, and physical therapy to regain function and learn how to live with a permanent disability.


Treatment Market Players

Treatment Products



Integra LifeSciences

Embold Fibered Coil



MicroPort Scientific Corporation



Surpass Evolve™



Johnson & Johnson.




B. Braun Melsungen AG


Terumo Corporation


Microvention Inc.



Recent Developments

  • In June 2023, investigators at the RIKEN Centre for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan identified a group of linked mutations causing intracranial aneurysms weakened blood arteries in the brain that are prone to rupture at any time.
  • As of September 2022, ~94% of robotically assisted endovascular procedures were completed by Siemens Healthineers' CorPath GRX Neurovascular System without the need for the surgeon to switch to a manual technique.
  • Pipeline Vantage with Shield Technology, a fourth-generation flow diverter certified by the European Community (CE) and intended for endovascular treatment of brain aneurysms, was introduced by India Medtronic in June 2022.
  • As of September 2022, ~94% of robotically assisted endovascular procedures were completed by Siemens Healthineers' CorPath GRX Neurovascular System without the need for the surgeon to switch to a manual technique.
  • Pipeline Vantage with Shield Technology, a fourth-generation flow diverter certified by the European Community (CE) and intended for endovascular treatment of brain aneurysms, was introduced by India Medtronic in June 2022.

Current Trends

  • Healthy growth is estimated for endovascular coiling. By keeping blood out of arteries, a catheter is used in this minimally invasive method to treat brain aneurysms. The segment is growing because of the advantages that come with this procedure, like simple access to the vertebrobasilar system, multiple aneurysms in remote areas, and a shorter recovery period than other procedures.
  • September is Brain Aneurysm Awareness Month. The Brain Aneurysm Foundation (BAF), the premier advocacy group for policy, research, and education aimed at revolutionizing the management of brain aneurysms, announced the start of "Stop the Pop," on 6th September 2023, a new initiative designed to raise public awareness of the disease's impact and prevalence as well as the ongoing need for funding for screening, treatment, and new innovations. In addition to raising awareness of the condition's symptoms, and genetic, and environmental risk factors, the campaign seeks to boost funding for research into the condition's underlying causes and the development of novel treatments.

Clinical Trail Assessment

The increasing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research by the government emphasizes the importance of clinical trials in the practice of evidence-based medicine and health care reform. Clinical data helps the market players to accurately compare medical therapy and achieve one of the primary goals of health care reform.

The study titles of the currently active clinical trials, as well as the phases in which they are being conducted, are included in the table below.


(Human Pharmacology)


(Therapeutic Exploratory Trail)


(Therapeutic Confirmatory Trial)


(Post Marketing Surveillance)


Effect of Sirolimus on Molecular Alterations in Cerebral Aneurysms

Evaluating Oral Peri-operative Acetylsalicylic Acid in Subjects Undergoing Endovascular Coiling-only of Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

Evaluate the Use of Glibenclamide on Acute aSAH


Cerebral Hemodynamic Optimization by Milrinone to Prevent Delayed Cerebral Ischemia


Optimal Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Stent-assisted Coiling




Reduction of Microembolism After the Intervention Surgery of Intracranial Aneurysms by Administration of Tirofiban



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Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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