Pneumonia Disease

Published Date : Aug 2023
Category : Infectious Diseases
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Discovering the Business Potential of the Pneumonia Disease with DLI

Certain diseases have a significant impact on the health and well-being of people around the world, given the wide healthcare environment. A serious respiratory ailment referred to as pneumonia poses a quiet threat to millions of people globally and presents difficulties for both businesses and healthcare providers. But despite these challenges, there are unrealized opportunities for development and innovation.

Millions of people globally continue to suffer from severe respiratory infection- pneumonia each year. Based on the statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), pneumonia kills 15% of all children under the age of five worldwide. Also, because of respiratory infections (including COVID-19), there were more than 4.7 million deaths worldwide in 2022. Pneumonia is one of the most prevalent causes of death worldwide, specifically among the elderly and young children under the age of five. According to IS GLOBAL, a child dies due to pneumonia every 42 seconds. It is more likely to affect young children, older adults, those with a weakened immune system, and people with other medical problems.

Complications from pneumonia include:

  • Respiratory Failure
  • Sepsis

An inflammatory, non-infectious illness known as pneumonitis affects the interstitial space of the lungs. The most frequent cause is exposure to certain irritants, which include chemicals, medications, allergies, or radiation. Though the exact cause is still unknown in some cases, it is exposure to certain irritants, which involve chemicals, medications, allergies, or radiation, though in some cases the exact cause is still unknown. The inflammation brought on by this condition disrupts the normal transfer of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood. Occasionally, chemicals breathed, or other non-infectious factors also cause this condition.

Types of Pneumonia:

  1. Identifying Pneumonia by its Location in the Lung:

  • One lobe of the lung experiences Lobar Pneumonia.
  • The lung usually has bronchopneumonia spread out across it.
  1. Identifying Pneumonia by the Source of the Infection: 

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)
  1. Identifying Pneumonia Arising in Institutional Settings:

  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP)
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
  • Nursing-home-acquired pneumonia.
  1. Pediatric Pneumonia:

A prevalent disease in children is pneumonia. Pneumonia accounts for ~13% of infectious illnesses in infants and toddlers younger than 2 years. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Worldwide, approximately 150 million new cases of pneumonia occur annually among children younger than 5 years.

  1. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults over 65

Adults over 65 or those with weakened immune systems have mild or less noticeable symptoms of pneumonia (like cough and shortness of breath). Symptoms of ongoing health conditions worsen. Older adults experience a sudden change in mental state, low appetite, and fatigue.

  1. Walking pneumonia:

It is an informal term for a common bacterial condition. It produces milder symptoms that appear more gradually than in other types of more serious pneumonia.

Most common symptoms related to pneumonia:

These signs often include persistent cough accompanied by the production of phlegm, which presents itself in varying colors. Individuals experiencing pneumonia also find themselves plagued by difficulty breathing and a heightened or rapid breathing rate. Furthermore, feelings of fatigue and general weakness prevail, along with an increased body temperature or fever. Pneumonia also results in chest pain, particularly during inhalation or coughing episodes.

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Pneumonia: Diagnostic Industry Analysis

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Medical History and Physical Check:

The medical professional evaluates symptoms, reviews the medical background, and conducts a physical exam. They enquire about symptoms, including how long and how bad the cough is, whether the patient has a fever or chest pain, and whether they recently had any respiratory illnesses.

Chest X-ray:

Pneumonia is often diagnosed with a chest X-ray. It offers a picture of the lungs, making it possible for the medical professional to spot any swelling or consolidation. On the pneumonia X-ray, patches or areas of opacity are frequently seen. According to NCBI in 2022, a meta-analysis showed that chest X-ray correctly diagnosed COVID-19 pneumonia in 80.6% of patients and erroneously in 28.5%.

Because of the following features, Chest X-ray imaging is the most frequently used method for diagnosing pneumonia:

  • Easy accessibility
  • Quick results
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Detecting lung abnormalities associated with pneumonia (e.g., infiltrates, consolidation, and fluid accumulation in the lungs.)
  • Non-invasiveness (i.e., it does not require any injections or contrast agents.)
  • Diagnostic accuracy

Sputum Culture:

A sample is obtained and tested in the lab to determine the cause of sputum or phlegm that comes from the lungs when you cough. This makes it easier to choose the ideal antibiotic for the disease being treated.


A bronchoscopy is carried out in several circumstances. Through the mouth or nose, a small, flexible tube with a camera attached is placed into the lungs. This enables the medical professional to see the airways and gather samples for additional examination.

Blood Tests:

Blood tests are used to assess the infection's severity and pinpoint the responsible organism. Typical blood tests consist of:

  • White blood cell count is evaluated using a complete blood count (CBC). A complete blood count (CBC) is an easy and affordable test. An infection is suggested by an increase in white blood cells, particularly neutrophils.
  • C-reactive protein (CRP): This inflammatory marker is called CRP. Increased levels are a sign of an infection.

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends that General Practitioners (GPs) should consider carrying out C-reactive protein tests for people presenting in primary care with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection. It also states that the results of the C-reactive protein test should be used to guide antibiotic prescribing in people without a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. According to American Lung Association in 2023, less than 5% of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia had positive blood cultures.

Pulse Oximetry:

This painless technique determines the blood's oxygen saturation level. It entails applying a pulse oximeter, a tiny instrument, to the finger. Low oxygen levels are a sign of pneumonia involving the lungs. According to Pneumonia Biomed Central (BMC), the combined use of pulse oximetry with IMCI in 2023, has a sensitivity of 70–85% in accurately diagnosing childhood pneumonia.

Also, an emerging technique that can be effectively used to diagnose pneumonia disease and especially differentiate between COVID-19 & Pneumonia is:

Artificial Intelligence to Detect COVID-19 and Community-Acquired Pneumonia Based on Pulmonary CT:

COVID Pneumonia: COVID pneumonia is an infection in the lungs caused by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. As the immune system attacks the infection in the lungs, they get inflamed and filled with fluid, making it hard to breathe.

Symptoms: Confusion, extreme fatigue/tiredness, cough, fever, chest pain or tightness, bluish lips, skin, or nails (cyanosis).

The purpose of this is to develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 & CAP using chest CT and evaluate its performance.

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The Market Competitors who are transforming the healthcare sector with their innovative diagnostic inventions are listed below:

Diagnosis Market Players

Chest X-Ray

Blood tests

Pulse Oximetry

AI-Based Detection

GE Healthcare


Roche Diagnostics


Contec Medical Systems


Philips Healthcare


Abbott Laboratories


Philips Healthcare


Riverain Technologies


Canon Medical systems



Nonin Medical

Zebra Medical Vision

Shimadzu Corporation

Siemens Healthineers

Nihon Kohden


Butterfly Network

Fujifilm Medical Systems

Beckman Coulter


Masimo Corporation



Diagnosis Product

Chest X-Ray

Blood tests

Pulse Oximetry

AI-Based Detection

GE Discovery XR656 Plus


Cobas® 6000 Analyzer Series


Contec CMS50D+ Finger Pulse Oximeter

AI-powered Radiology Solution


Siemens Ysio Max

Architect ci4100/ci8200 System

Philips IntelliVue Patient Monitors

HealthMammo (AI algorithm for chest X-rays)

Philips DigitalDiagnost C90

VITEK® MS Mass Spectrometry System

Nonin Onyx Vantage Finger         Pulse Oximeter

Butterfly iQ+ (Handheld ultrasound device)

Canon CXDI-701C Wireless Detector

ADVIA Centaur XPT/XPT Immunoassay System


Nihon Kohden SpO2 Monitors


qXR - AI for Chest X-rays


Shimadzu MobileArt Evolution EOZ


Access-2 Immunoassay System

Masimo Rad-97 Pulse CO-Oximeter

Lunit INSIGHT for Chest X-rays



Pneumonia: Treatment Analysis

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There are currently several treatment options available:

1. Antiviral Medications:

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), an antiviral, is used to treat viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses. These drugs lessen the intensity and duration of the symptoms because of flu pneumonia.

2. Oxygen Therapy:

To ensure that the body is receiving enough oxygen, patients with severe pneumonia need to get additional oxygen therapy. In more serious circumstances, a ventilator or nasal prongs are used.

3. Supportive Care:

Sufficient hydration, rest, and symptomatic alleviation techniques, such as over-the-counter painkillers for fever and pain, assist to manage the symptoms and improve the body's healing process.

4. Antibiotics for pneumonia:

The foundation of therapy for bacterial pneumonia is antibiotics. Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, and Levofloxacin are among the antibiotics that are frequently recommended, based on the suspected causing microorganisms and local resistance patterns.

The most prescribed and the best antibiotic for pneumonia is Penicillin based antibiotic: Amoxicillin.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is effective against a wide range of strains of gram-positive bacteria with some additional gram-negative coverage. With more than 15 million prescriptions written in 2020, it was the 40th most often prescribed drug in the US. It is used as a first-line treatment for pneumonia. WHO recommends amoxicillin 250 mg, preferably in Diagnostic Testing (DT) form, to replace cotrimoxazole as a more effective first-line treatment for pneumonia in children under-five years of age.

The leading amoxicillin market players are:

  • Pfizer Inc
  • Novartis
  • Abbott laboratories
  • Endo International plc
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  • Bristol Mayers Squibb company, etc. 

5. Prednisone and other corticosteroids:

Reduce inflammation and enhance lung function, are recommended in severe pneumonia instances or when the body responds with an excessive amount of inflammation.

Emerging Pneumonia Treatment Options:

1. mRNA vaccines:

The creation of mRNA vaccines, like those utilized for COVID-19, has demonstrated the potential for inducing an immune response against infections. These vaccines may be able to prevent pneumonia by going after the root causes.

2. Therapeutic vaccinations:

Are being investigated to improve the immune response in people with pneumonia. These vaccinations amplify the immune system's capacity to identify and combat the infectious pathogen more effectively. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 23.9% of adults aged 18 and above received a pneumococcal vaccination in 2022.

3. Immunomodulatory Therapies:

Several immunomodulatory treatments, particularly in severe cases of pneumonia, are being researched to control the immune response. To reduce excessive inflammation or strengthen immunological defenses, these therapies try to modify the immune system.

4. Monoclonal Antibodies:

These are being researched as a possible therapy for pneumonia brought on by bacteria. The viruses or bacteria causing the infection can be found and neutralized by these antibodies.

5. Novel Antibiotics:

To address the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause pneumonia, researchers are still working on the creation of novel antibiotics. When conventional antibiotics are ineffective, these antibiotics are intended to offer an alternative course of treatment.

How These Emerging Techniques Will Help in The Market Growth:

  • Enhanced Outcomes: These techniques aim to enhance the effectiveness of pneumonia diagnosis, management, and treatment, leading to improved patient outcomes and positive patient outcomes driving market growth.
  • Advancement In Technology: Emerging techniques leverage technologies like AI, Machine Learning, Telemedicine, and Remote Monitoring. Integrating technology in pneumonia treatment attracts investment, spurs research and development, and drives market growth.
  • Addressing Global Health Challenges: Pneumonia is a significant global health concern, particularly in developing regions. Accessible, affordable, and scalable treatment techniques can address unmet needs, capture new market segments, and contribute to market growth.
  • Reduced Healthcare Burden: By minimizing hospital stays, decreasing healthcare costs, and optimizing resource utilization, these techniques contribute to market growth.
  • Demand for Innovation: New treatment techniques stimulate demand, attracting interest from healthcare providers, patients, and investors, driving further research & development, and market growth.

Transform the Healthcare Industry Through Innovative Approaches, DiseaseLandscape Insights Services Optimize Treatment Techniques Based on Comprehensive Market Research


Treatment Market Players

Oral Medications

(Antibiotics & Antivirals)

Respiratory Medications


Oxygen Therapy

Biomarker Associated Treatment


Cipla Ltd.


Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH

Serum Institute of India


Vertex Pharmaceuticals



Pfizer Inc.

Novartis AG


Bharat Biotech

Drive DeVilbiss Healthcare

Celgene Corporation




Sinovac Biotech Ltd.


Moderna, Inc.



GlaxoSmithKline plc

Moderna, Inc.

Nidek Medical Products, Inc.

BioNTech SE


Pfizer Inc.

BioNTech SE

Heyer Medical AG

AbbVie Inc.


Bayer AG

Merck & Co.

Sinopharm Group Co., Ltd.

GCE Group

Amgen Inc.



The DiseaseLandscape Insight Services Equip You To be One Step Ahead of The Competition with The Thorough Analysis of Treatment Options, Service Contributions, Product Portfolios, And Market Players.

Treatment Products

Oral Medications

Respiratory Medications


Oxygen Therapy

Biomarker Associated Treatment

Cefuroxime 500mg

Mepolizumab (SB240563)


AirSep® FreeStyle®


Cefasyn 500mg


Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23- Pneumovax 23)

AirSep® LifeStyle




Synflorix (PCV10)

Inogen One®

Lipocalin 2(Lpc-2)


Fluticasone (GSK2834425)

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV- PCV13 Prevnar 13)

Respironics EverGo™










SeQual Eclipse®




PCV15 (Vaxneuvance®)

Inogen One G4

sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products)


Regulatory Framework for Pneumonia Disease:

According to, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD October 2022- Development and Validation of CRRT-Specific Beta-Lactam Population Pharmacokinetic Models to Guide Treatment for Patients with Hospital-acquired Pneumonia:

  • Awarded to Midwestern University (FY22: 75F40122C00134)
  • The primary objective of this study is to develop precision dosing models in critically ill patients with HAP requiring CRRT. This will facilitate the development and evaluation of optimal HAP-specific dosing regimens for cefepime in this population.
  • Currently in patients with HAP who are critically ill we observe variability in PK. This results in decreased effectiveness of treatments whose effectiveness depends on achieving adequate PK/PD exposures. Results from this study will lead to the development of validated PK models and accurate dosing guidance to optimize concentrations of cefepime in these patients to improve clinical outcomes.
  • This study aligns with section 2.4.2 of the Broad Agency Announcement: Advance the science of in vitro, animal models, pharmacokinetic studies, and/or real-world evidence studies to facilitate drug development, including studies focused on antimicrobial resistance and drug development for special populations.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also made it mandatory that the Use of rapid diagnostic or nonculture tests to help identify a patient for enrollment in a CABP trial (e.g., urinary antigen test for S. pneumoniae or L. pneumophila; polymerase chain reaction, serology). If the tests being used are not FDA-cleared, sponsors should provide sufficient information about the performance characteristics of the tests determined from analytical validation studies.

Clinical Trial Assessment:

As a Devoted Partner to The Pharmaceutical Sector, DiseaseLandscape Insight Services Offer Extensive Support in Organizing, Executing, And Evaluating Clinical Studies for The Development of Novel Medications.

The assessments capture all relevant information covering the successes and failures of similar drugs in clinical stages, competing drugs in the market, and ongoing clinical trials.

Ongoing clinical trials are shown in the table below along with their title and the stages they are being conducted:


Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Phase IV


A 2-Part First-in-Human Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Immunogenicity of CMTX-101, an Anti-DNABII Monoclonal Antibody, in Healthy Subjects.


Bacterial Pneumonia & CAP.


Title: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Design, multi-center, Adaptive Phase 2/Phase 3 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ramatroban Along with The Standard of Care in Subjects Hospitalized For SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Condition: COVID-19 Pneumonia

Title: Supportive Care and Antibiotics for Severe Pneumonia Among Hospitalized Children

Condition: Pneumonia

Title: Research on the Treatment of Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children

Condition: Severe Pneumonia

Title: A Phase 1 Study of DVX201, an Allogeneic Natural Killer (NK llike DVX201) Cell Therapy in Subjects Hospitalized for COVID-19

Condition: COVID-19- Pneumonia

Title: To Assess the Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the Pathobiology of Pneumonia: Generate a New Strategy for Treatment of Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia

Condition: Pneumonia

Title: A Phase 3b Randomized, Double-Blind, Multi-Center Study to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Omadacycline IV/PO to Moxifloxacin IV/PO for Treating Adult Subjects with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP)

Condition: Bacterial Pneumonia, CAP

Title: A Phase IV Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial (DBRCT) to Investigate the Effect of PCV-13 and PPV-23 on Pneumococcal Colonisation Using the Experimental Human Pneumococcal Challenge (EHPC) Model in Healthy Adults

Condition: Streptococcus Pneumonia

Title: A Phase 1, Open-label, Non-comparative, Multicenter Clinical Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam (MK-7625A) in Pediatric Participants with Nosocomial Pneumonia

Condition: Nosocomial Pneumonia

Title: Immunotherapy Navigated by Serum Presepsin for Infections of the Respiratory Tract: the INSPIRE Double-blind, Randomized, Phase IIa Exploratory Trial.

Condition: Community Acquired pneumonia & Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

Title: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Multi-center, Phase III Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Trimodulin (BT588) in Adult Hospitalized Subjects with Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia (s CAP).

Condition: CAP

Title: Population Pharmacokinetics of Cefiderocol During Acute Pulmonary Exacerbations in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Condition: Bacterial pneumonia, cystic fibrosis

Title: A Study to Compare 7-days Versus 14 Days of Antibiotics Therapy for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Due to Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumanii

Condition: Ventilator-associated pneumonia

Title: Effect of Nasal and Oropharyngeal Use of Povidone Iodine and Glycyrrhizin on Ventilator-associated Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Trial

Condition: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Title: Comparison of Short Infusion Versus Prolonged Infusion of Ceftolozane-tazobactam Among Patients with Ventilator Associated-pneumonia to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Intensive Care Units

Condition: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Title: A Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Intravenous Ambroxol Hydrochloride as an Adjunct Therapy for Severe Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients

Condition: Severe Pneumonia, CAP, HAP.

Title: Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Condition: Community-Acquired Pneumonia, COVID-19, Influenza

Title: Ceftriaxone to PRevent pneumOnia and inflammatTion aftEr Cardiac arresT (PROTECT): a Randomized-controlled Trial and Microbiome Assessment

Condition: Out of Hospital with cardiac arrest & Pneumonia.

Title: Reparixin 1200 mg TID as add-on to SoC to Limit Disease Progression in Hospitalised Patients With COVID-19 and Other Community-Acquired Pneumonia. A Multicentre, Randomised, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled, Phase III Trial (REPAVID-22)

Condition: Infectious Pneumonia, severe Covid-19

Title: Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Critically Ill Patients After Suspected Aspiration

Condition: Aspiration Pneumonia


DiseaseLandscape Insight recognizes the critical importance of understanding disease, particularly when it comes to fighting pneumonia. Our comprehensive DiseaseLandscape Insight services are intended to help the healthcare sector, its professionals, researchers, and other industry participants improve patient outcomes while strengthening and expanding their businesses.

By harnessing the power of extensive industry knowledge and market research experience, our services provide invaluable insights into the latest advancements, treatment techniques, and emerging trends in pneumonia management. This enables healthcare professionals to make informed decisions, devise targeted strategies, and deliver personalized care to patients. Moreover, our disease landscape services serve as a catalyst for collaboration and innovation, fostering partnerships among industry stakeholders and researchers to drive advancements in pneumonia treatment and prevention.

By leveraging our expertise, healthcare organizations gain a competitive edge, enhance patient outcomes, and contribute to the overall improvement of global healthcare.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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