Influenza Disease

Published Date : Jun 2023
Category : Infectious Diseases
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Influenza (FLU) Global Toll on Respiratory Diseases - A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

The characteristics of circulating viruses, the time of the season, the effectiveness of the vaccination in preventing illness, and the number of people who received the vaccine all serve a role in how widespread the burden of flu disease is worldwide. Although the effects of the flu differ, they are all harmful to people's health.

FluNet (a global web-based tool for Influenza) received data from 107 nations, regions, or territories from National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories for the time period from September 4 to September 17, 2023, over 2,98,993 specimens were tested by the WHO GISRS facilities throughout that time. There were 7773 people who tested positive for influenza, of them 6247 (80.37%) had influenza A, and 1526 (19.63%) had influenza B. Thirty-eight percent (28.87%) of the influenza A subtypes were influenza A(H1N1) pdm09, and seven percent (71.13%) were influenza A(H3N2). All (606) of the type B viruses whose lineage was established belonged to the B/Victoria lineage.

A total of 3038 laboratory-confirmed cases of various influenza subtypes, including H3N2, have been reported by the States up until March 9th, 2023, according to the most recent statistics on the IDSP-IHIP (integrated health Information Platform). These examples include 1245 in January 1307 in February, and 486 in March (up until the ninth of March).

Furthermore, according to IDSP-IHIP data collected from medical facilities, the nation recorded a total of 397,814 cases of acute respiratory illness/influenza-like illness (ARI/ILI) in January 2023, with that number rising to 436,523 in February 2023. This amount totals 133,412 cases in the first nine days of March 2023.

 Upper and lower respiratory tracts are affected by the contagious viral disease known as influenza. It is caused by an array of influenza viruses. Some of these viruses infect people, while others are only found in certain species. When a person coughs, talks, or sneezes, respiratory droplets that are released from the mouth and respiratory system spread these infections. contacting the nose or eye, as well as contacting inanimate objects contaminated with the virus, spread the influenza virus.

The influenza virus, an RNA virus that comes in three different kinds (A, B, and C), is what causes the acute respiratory infectious disease known as influenza.  The types A, B, and C not only correspond to the order in which the virus was identified but, more crucially, to the sequence in which it caused harm to people.

 The predominant type of the flu, influenza A, has the potential to spread globally. Being widely contagious among animals, it has the potential to spread like the flu among them and kill a lot of animals. Unlike influenza A virus, which triggers pandemics, influenza B virus only causes localized outbreaks.

Humans, domestic fowl, swine, horses, dogs, and bats are among the seven animal species or groups in which influenza A viruses have been found and are known to be circulating. It has been found that avian influenza A viruses can occasionally cause illnesses in many different animal species.


Upper and lower respiratory tracts are affected by influenza. It is caused by a diverse range of influenza viruses. Some of these viruses infect people, while others are only found in certain species. When a person coughs, talks, or sneezes, respiratory droplets that are released from the mouth and respiratory system spread these infections. contacting the nose or eye, as well as contacting inanimate objects contaminated with the virus, spread the influenza virus.


The period of time between exposure to and infection with the flu and the onset of symptoms is typically two days, but it is anything between one and four days. People with chronic lung diseases, for instance, should seek medical care right away because they are at a higher risk of complications.

Beginning with a runny nose, sneezing, and sore throat, the flu initially resembles a cold. Colds usually begin gradually. However, the flu often strikes suddenly. And while having a cold is awful, having the flu usually makes feel much worse.

Watery diarrhea, cramping in the stomach, nausea or vomiting, and occasionally fever are all signs and symptoms of stomach (gastric) flu, an intestinal infection.

Headache, a dry, lingering cough, fatigue and weakness, a runny or stuffy nose, a sore throat, and eye pain are some more flu symptoms.

Differentiating Influenza (FLU) and COVID-19

Both COVID-19 and the flu are viral respiratory illnesses that spread easily. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the source of corona. The influenza A and B viruses are what cause the flu. Symptoms of COVID-19 often occur 2 to 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection. After being exposed to the influenza virus for 1 to 4 days, flu symptoms typically start to manifest.

Some people develop more severe diseases from COVID-19 than they would from the flu. Additionally, complications from COVID-19, including blood clots, post-COVID disorders, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, differ from those of the flu. With COVID-19, severe sickness occurs more often than with the flu. When compared to prior flu outbreaks, COVID-19 resulted in an increase in hospital admissions and fatalities among adults 18 and older.

According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 95 million people in the United States have contracted COVID-19 thus far. In the US, COVID-19 has claimed the lives of almost 1 million people. In contrast, between 8 and 13 million Americans contracted the flu during the 2021–2022 flu season, and between 5,000 and 14,000 of them passed away as a result.

Influenza Diagnosis

"Starting from Detection to Cure: Explore Recent Innovations and Approaches in FLU Infection with DLI"

The most common symptoms of influenza (fever, cough, and aches) make it challenging to diagnose because they are similar to those of many other prevalent infections. The flu is detected in patients in a number of ways by medical professionals. Many tests are available to detect the FLU virus in the respiratory specimen. But the most common test includes-

  • Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test (RIDT)-

The most common type of flu test is RIDT, often known as flu antigen test. They function by recognizing the components of the flu virus known as antigens that cause an immune response, and they detect influenza A and B. RIDTs typically involve taking a sample from the nostril using a swab.

Although RIDTs give answers in about 10 to 15 minutes, they might not be as precise as other flu tests. Even though the results of a quick test are negative, still be sick with the flu.

  • Rapid Molecular Assay for FLU Testing-

It is a test for finding the inherited characteristics of the influenza virus. They are more accurate than RIDTs and produce results in 15 to 30 minutes.

The nasopharyngeal (NP) swab is used in several tests. The sample is then sent to a lab for evaluation. This test is also used by medical professionals on hospitalized patients who indicate flu-like symptoms.

  • Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)-

 RT-PCR has a very high sensitivity and specificity for detecting influenza viral RNA or nucleic acids in respiratory specimens.

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Products

Abbott Laboratories, Inc.

BD Veritor™

Becton, Dickinson, and Company (Bd)


Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.


Meridian Bioscience, Inc.


Sekisui Diagnostics


Hologic, Inc.


Roche Diagnostics Ltd.

OSOM Ultra Plus

Genetix Biotech Asia Pvt. Ltd.

CareStart Flu

Metadesign Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

ImmunoCard STAT

Poct Services Pvt. Ltd.


Trivitron Healthcare Pvt. Ltd.


3B Blackbio Biotech India Limited


Oscar Medicare Pvt. Ltd


Access Bio, Inc.



Treatment Analysis for Influenza

DLI market research and consulting service is committed to assisting the pharmaceutical sector by providing full assistance in the organization, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials for the development of novel drugs. 

Medicinal Treatment-

  • Antiviral Medicine-

By treating the patient's infection and helping prevent serious diseases that arise from the flu, antiviral medications are a crucial tool in both preventing and controlling influenza. People who are at high risk for flu complications, such as the elderly or those with weakened immune systems, should take antiviral medications as soon as possible. These medications are effective in treating both influenza A and B cases and work best when given within 48 hours of the start of flu symptoms.

  • M2 Inhibitor

The influenza-A M2 protein's ability to uncoat the virus is inhibited by amantadine and rimantadine, although they are ineffective against influenza B viruses.  They are no longer effective against seasonal Influenza due to the resistance of the A(H1N1) pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses that are currently circulating. Thus in the United States, these two medicines are not recommended for treatment.

  • Neuraminidase Inhibitors-

Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) prevent the neuraminidase enzyme from working. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir block the progeny influenza virus from being released from infected host cells, which inhibits the infection of new host cells and stops the propagation of the illness in the respiratory tract.

  • Polymerase Inhibitor

For the treatment of uncomplicated influenza, A, and B infections, the oral prodrug Baloxavir Marboxil, which targets the PA, cap-dependent endonuclease, a subunit of the RNA polymerase, was authorized in Japan and the USA in 2018.

Favipiravir (T705), which has broad-spectrum activity against many other RNA virus families and is effective against all three strains of influenza A, B, and C, targets the RNA polymerase. Its use against newly emerging or remerging influenza viruses has been authorized in Japan.

Pimodivir (VX-787) has not yet received clinical use approval despite inhibiting the RNA polymerase's PB2 cap-binding component in influenza A viruses but not influenza B.

Home Remedies and Self Care-

Drink plenty of fluids. This includes water, warm soup, and drinks containing minerals called rehydration solutions. and the patient must rest sufficiently.

 Take acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others). These medications can help reduce fever and relieve muscle aches or headaches.

Treatment Market Players

AstraZeneca Plc

BioCryst Pharmaceuticals

Daiichi Sankyo Company

Novartis AG

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited.

GlaxoSmithKline Plc,

NATCO Pharma Limited

Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

Sanofi Pasteur


Treatment Product

















Fluzone® High-Dose








Market Trend Analysis

The examination of influenza's global market trends shows that market participants are paying more attention to preventative and management techniques. That is as a result of the virus's growing cognizance and the demand for all-encompassing healthcare remedies.

The widespread implementation of FLU vaccination programs is one of the most important trends in the global FLU market. Many nations are stepping up their vaccine campaigns, focusing on teenagers and young people, in an effort to stop FLU infections and drastically lower the fatality rate.

A digital campaign named "Help Them Fight Flu" has been launched by the CDC in 2022 to persuade parents of young children to obtain flu vaccinations. Recently The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) unveiled a new campaign called "Wild to Mild" in an effort to rebrand and adjust expectations regarding the seasonal influenza vaccine.

self (PC) High-Level Implementation Plan III (HLIP III) outlines the strategy for strengthening global pandemic influenza preparedness from 2024 to 2030.

Regulatory Framework

These regulatory frameworks and decisions regarding the treatment and diagnosis of influenza have been compiled based on DLI Analysis.

Several countries have created regulations for FLU immunization in accordance with the FDA and EMA, focusing in particular on teenagers and young adults. Regulatory organizations in different nations, however, routinely update treatment, diagnosis, and prevention guidelines.

In March 2022, WHO released Guidelines for the Clinical Management of Severe Illness from Influenza Virus Infection. The new recommendations aim to help clinicians treat patients who have or are at risk of developing a severe case of seasonal, zoonotic, or pandemic influenza. The recommendations were created utilizing a thorough methodology that involved ordering systematic reviews and grading the strength of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation GRADE system.

This recommendation document offers advice ON Treatment with antivirals, particularly neuraminidase inhibitors; Treatment with adjuvant medicines, including corticosteroids, macrolides, and passive immune therapy; and Use of diagnostic testing procedures to direct treatment.

TGA published guidelines on September 29, 2023, to assist producers and sponsors who are submitting quality modules for influenza vaccine registration. This included influenza vaccine registration applications or variation applications for seasonal influenza vaccines' yearly strain updates.

For stakeholders from many nations, DiseaseLandscape Insights streamlines the Flu regulatory requirements. DLI provides accurate information on risk assessment, monitoring, and regulatory framework.  Organizations and market participants manage and respond to FLU infections with the use of DLI services, ensuring that afflicted individuals are kept safe.

Clinical Trial Assessment

The government's increased emphasis on comparing the efficacy of studies draws attention to the crucial role that clinical trials play in the practice of evidence-based medicine and health care reform.

One of the key objectives of rebuilding healthcare is accomplished by market players thoroughly evaluating medical therapy using clinical data.

Some study names of the ongoing clinical trials along with the stages at which they are taking place are given in the following table:


(Human Pharmacology)


(Therapeutic Exploratory Trail)


(Therapeutic Confirmatory Trial)


(Post Marketing Surveillance)

Response to Influenza Vaccine During Pregnancy (FLU-PG)

Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV)

Bolaxavir in Combination with Oseltamivir in Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient with Influenza (Drug: Baloxavir Marboxil)

Bolaxavir in Combination with Oseltamivir in Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient with Influenza. (Placebo)

Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Tonsillar Tissues and Blood (FLU-Tonsil).


Influenza Human Challenge Model.

(Influenza Virus Type A H3N2 Challenge)

Phase 2 Trial Comparing Antiviral Treatment in Early Symptomatic Influenza (AD ASTRA)

Immunogenicity and Safety of Butantan Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion, Inactivated) in Infants and Children.

Response to Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Lymph Tissues and Blood (FLU-LN)

Beta-glucan and Immune Response to Influenza Vaccine (M-Unity)

High vs. Standard Dose Influenza Vaccine in Lung Allograft Recipients

Intravenous N-acetylcysteine and Oseltamivir Versus Oseltamivir in Adults Hospitalized with Influenza and Pneumonia.

Comparative Immunogenicity of Concomitant vs Sequential mRNA COVID-19 and Influenza Vaccinations

H7HLAII DNA Influenza Vaccine (H7N9vax-1)

The Safety and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of OVX836 Influenza Vaccine 480μg

Combined Immunization of COVID-19 Inactivated Vaccine With QIV and PPV23 (QIV;PPV23)

Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of One or Two Doses of Sing2016 M2SR H3N2 Influenza Vaccine

Flu-Bu-Mel Based Conditioning Regimen for Patients with Lymphoid Malignancies Undergoing Allo-HSCT

A Phase III Clinical Trial of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Subjects Aged 6 to 35 Months


A Deep Longitudinal Analysis of Next Generation Influenza Vaccines in Older Adults.



Disease Landscape Insights (DLI) Consultancy is in a good position to help market participants in influenza infection navigate the challenges in the diagnosis and treatment market. We help healthcare payers recognize market prospects by assisting them with a variety of methods that promote their worldwide expansion.

Industry participants build and put into action effective treatment programs for treating flu illness with the help of Disease Landscape Insights. Additionally, there is a growing demand for clinical assessments and diagnostic tools to identify, treat, and prevent flu infections.

We offer crucial process participants the knowledge and regulatory expertise they require. DLI’s assistance for market participants, planning and carrying out clinical trials for cutting-edge drugs and medications, patient recruitment strategies, and regulatory compliance are made simple by insights and experience in regulatory norms.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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