Impetigo Disease

Published Date : Jan 2024
Category : Infectious Diseases
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"Unmasking Impetigo: From Spread to Protection, Embracing the Itch behind the Disease!"

Within the complex web of human health, the skin is the tough protector against outside influences. However, a mysterious culprit is hiding in the shadows- impetigo, a common skin infection that throws off the delicate equilibrium of the body's first defence system.

Impetigo is more prevalent in the summer in the United States. According to estimates from the World Health Organisation, Streptococcal impetigo affects 111 million children in less developed nations at any given moment. In densely populated and economically deprived areas, warm and muggy weather, and impetigo is more common among people who don't practise good hygiene. The NCBI estimates that the prevalence in children worldwide is 12%, however, this could be lower given the underrepresentation of high-income nations.

Furthermore, NIH reported that 10% of skin issues in children are caused by impetigo. The incidence is the same in boys and females across all age levels.  Men are more frequently impacted than women in adulthood.  Although it happens at any age, children between the ages of two and five are the most likely to experience it. Summer and autumn are when it happens most frequently. Infants are more likely to have bullous impetigo.  Ninety per cent of instances of bullous or crusted impetigo are in children under two years old.

Gram-positive bacteria are the most prevalent cause of impetigo, a highly contagious infection of the superficial layers of the epidermis. The most typical presentation is erythematous plaques that are unpleasant or itchy and have a yellow crust.  The lesions are rapidly distributed and very contagious. Impetigo is categorized as bullous impetigo, nonbullous impetigo, and ecthyma.

  1. aureus is the most prevalent cause of nonbullous impetigo, accounting for 80% of cases. Ten per cent of cases are caused by Group A beta-haemolytic Strep (GABHS), and ten per cent of the time, a combination of S. aureus and GABHS is the causal agent. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) has increased, particularly in hospitalized patients. Community-acquired MRSA is growing at a rapid rate nowadays. In close quarters, creche facilities, and jails, the syndrome is more prevalent. S. aureus is almost the only cause of bullous impetigo. One of the complications of bullous impetigo is the occurrence of ecthyma, a deep ulcerated infection. Ecthyma arises from impetigo left untreated. A more serious kind of skin infection is ecthyma. It penetrates a child's skin more deeply.

Impetigo is divided into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary impetigo is caused by a direct bacterial invasion that affects the skin that was previously normal. An infection that develops at the site of a prior skin wound is known as secondary impetigo.


All parts of the body are prone to impetigo, although the hands, forearms, nose, mouth, and nappy region are the most prevalent areas.

These symptoms are categorized according to the type of impetigo:

Non-bullous Impetigo- Usually around the mouth and nose, but also affecting other parts of the face and limbs, red sores are the first sign of non-bullous impetigo. Thick, golden crusts, usually around 2 cm large, were left behind as the lesions promptly ruptured. Sometimes, people compare the look of these crusts to cornflakes that have adhered to their skin.

The red mark that the crusts leave behind after they dry normally disappears without leaving any scars. A few days to a few weeks is how long it usually takes for the redness to go away. Rare but more severe instances might also present with other symptoms including swollen glands and a high temperature (fever).

Bullous The onset of fluid-filled blisters, or bullae, usually appears on the arms and legs or on the central region of the body between the neck and waist. This is the first sign of bullous impetigo. Typically, the blisters have a diameter of 1-2 cm.

The blisters develop quickly, and after a few days, they rupture, leaving a yellow crust that normally cures without leaving any scars behind.

The skin around the blisters is irritating and the blisters themselves hurt. Similar to non-bullous impetigo, it's crucial to avoid touching or scraping the skin in the afflicted areas.

Ecthyma- Most frequently, ecthyma affects the legs, ankles, feet, thighs, and buttocks. The nearby lymph nodes might occasionally swell and hurt. On an irritated patch of skin, an ecthyma lesion typically starts as a pustule or vesicle (small blister).

Diagnostic Analysis of Impetigo

Physical Examination- A medical professional will typically diagnose impetigo based only on the appearance of the rash. Moreover, a physical examination is not able to accurately distinguish between non-bullous impetigo caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Lab tests are occasionally required to make a diagnosis or to gather data for a treatment plan.

Bacterial Culture Test- To determine whether a patient has a bacterial infection, a bacterium culture is performed. To better inform treatment choices, the test also determines the kind of bacteria that caused the infection. A dermatologist will frequently remove a sample from a skin blister if a lab test is required. This identifies the microorganisms causing the infection for the dermatologist.

Some other types of bacterial culture tests depending on the type of infection suspected are:

  • Wound Culture
  • Blood Culture
  • Throat Culture
  • Sputum Culture
  • Stool Culture
  • CSF Culture
  • Urine Culture

Diagnostic Market Players:

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Product



Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.


Abbott Rapid Diagnostic


Fisher Healthcare


BD Diagnostic System

Clearview™ PBP2a SA

Beijing Beier Bioengineering Co., Ltd


Arlingtons Scientific


Thermo Scientific


Pro-Lab Diagnostics


Vela Operations USA



BD Staphyloslide™

R-Biopharm AG









Treatment Analysis

"Clearing the Way to Healthy Skin: Eliminating Impetigo with Treatment and Care!"

Impetigo is usually not a dangerous condition and clears up in two to three weeks without any medical intervention. Treatment is frequently advised since it lessens the chance of illness transmission and helps the infection cure up in seven to ten days.


Antibiotics are typically a successful treatment for impetigo if it is proven. These must typically be used within a week.

  • Topical Antibiotics- An antibiotic ointment is used for five days to treat impetigo when it just affects a small region of the skin, particularly if it's the non-bullous kind. Wash the affected skin regions with warm, soapy water before using the cream, making sure to remove any formed crusts. In the area where the cream is applied, side effects of antibiotic cream include irritation, redness, and itching. Topical ointments include mupirocin (Bactroban® or Centany®) ointment. Applying an over the counter (OTC) antibiotic cream or ointment containing bacitracin to the affected area treats small skin infections that haven't spread. After that, cover the affected area with a nonstick bandage to help stop the infection from spreading.
  • Oral Antibiotics- If the infection is more serious and extensive, or if applying antibiotic cream doesn't help with the symptoms, antibiotic tablets are suggested. Typically, these must be taken for seven days, two to four times a day. Vomiting, diarrhoea, and nausea are typical adverse effects of oral antibiotics. It includes cephalosporins, clindamycin (Cleocin®) and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim™).

Natural Remedies

  • Vinegar- One naturally powerful way to get rid of bacteria is with vinegar. Applying it directly to the diseased area(s) is not advised because it causes a burning sensation to open sores. Alternatively, mix one-fourth of part vinegar with hot bath water to create a hot vinegar bath.
  • Tea Tree Oil- One of the most effective non-irritating antifungals to combat germs is tea tree oil. It both cures and prevents impetigo. Monocytes are an essential component of the immune system and are stimulated by the tea tree oil.
  • Aloe Vera- When applied to affected regions, aloe vera juice or gel, a natural skin moisturizer, soothes irritation.
  • Garlic- Packed with allicin, an active antibiotic that selectively destroys harmful bacteria while leaving good bacteria intact, garlic is a natural detoxifier.

Self-care & Prevention

Precautions should be taken during therapy to reduce the possibility of impetigo spreading to other persons or parts of the body. After receiving treatment for 48 hours or until their lesions have dried and healed, most patients are no longer contagious.

  • Avoid sharing towels, sheets, or blankets with people who have impetigo; instead, wash them quickly.
  • Refrain from rubbing and scratching the afflicted regions.
  • Applying a nonstick bandage to the affected region aids in stopping the sores from getting worse.
  • Gently wash the impetigo skin with warm water and soap to get rid of any debris or crusts.

Treatment Market Players:

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Product

Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited


Roche Holding AG


Lupin Limited

Centany AT Kit®

GlaxoSmithKline plc




NovaBay Pharmaceuticals


Leo Pharma A/S


Pfizer, Inc.


Karalex Pharma


Taro Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd


Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd


Ojer Pharma


Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited




A growing need for focused and effective treatments is causing a revolutionary shift in the market for antibiotic medications for impetigo. Precision medicine is becoming a growing trend because of developments in research and development and the emergence of innovative antibiotic compositions.

The market for impetigo treatments is also growing due to several factors like, a rise in infectious disease outbreaks, hospital-acquired infection cases, an increase in the patient population with weak immunity, increasing number of infants, increase in the adoption of unsanitary lifestyles in developing nation, an increase in over-the-counter medication use, ongoing bacterial strain mutations caused by microorganisms, an increase in the mode of transmission of impetigo diseases, and research and development efforts to enhance the quality of impetigo treatment medications.

On the other hand, government programmes to expedite the regulatory clearance process for innovative medications and create development prospects in developing markets are anticipated to present profitable prospects for market expansion.

Spending more on healthcare has improved access to medical facilities and treatment, especially in underdeveloped nations. Patients' need for quick and efficient treatments has increased the demand for impetigo therapeutics.

Recent Development

  • In June 2019, to increase public awareness of the incidence and consequences of impetigo in the United States, Almirall partnered with the American Acne and Rosacea Society (AARS).  The American Academy of Dermatology estimates that 50 million Americans suffer from skin infections, with around 85 per cent of those cases occurring in those between the ages of 12 and 24. It is believed that this collaboration will improve the effectiveness and knowledge of therapies for skin diseases.
  • Almirall LLC purchased the Allergen US Medical Dermatology Unit in September 2019. It is anticipated that the company will strengthen its brand recognition in the impetigo treatment market and diversify its business portfolio with this purchase.


This comprehensive look into the world of impetigo has illuminated several aspects of this infectious skin disease. DLI is focused on microbiological offenders, dynamics of transmission, clinical presentations, and available treatments. DLI provides a thorough examination of current therapeutic options, highlighting both promising techniques and current obstacles in the management of impetigo.

In addition, DLI offers guidance to clients to maintain regulatory compliance in several areas, including creating innovative product development strategies, collaborating with significant stakeholders, and applying clinical expertise for evidence-based approaches.

DLI's services make it easier for industry participants to conduct clinical studies for new drugs and treatments. It also facilitates other tasks like patient recruiting and regulatory compliance. DLI also gives industry participants comprehensive information about global regulations and guidelines, market trends, and rivals in the industry.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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