Albinism Disease

Published Date : Jul 2023
Category : Genetic Diseases
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“Unveiling the Strength Within: Steering Life with Albinism with Disease Landscape Insights”

Flaking light on albinism goes beyond mere awareness; it is a collective effort to dispel misconceptions, foster understanding, and pave the way for accurate diagnosis and comprehensive treatment. According to NIH, the estimated occurrence is between 1:17,000 and 1:20,000. One in seven people are affected by an OCA mutation; the most prevalent variant globally is OCA2. Due to cultural traditions that allow consanguineous marriages, which allows prevalence to exceed 1 in 1000, and a condition known as pseudo-dominance, which occurs when the burden of the recessive allele in a specific family is so great that the recessive characteristic is disproportionately represented, OCA2 is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of albinism is 1 in 40,000 globally for the OCA1 type, however it is one of the most prevalent forms in America and China (70% of instances), and 1 in 39,000 for OCA2 (most common worldwide), among African Americans (1:10,000), Americans (1:36,000), and Sub-Saharan Africa (1:3,900). The estimated prevalence in New Zealand is 1 in 16,000 people. OCA2 and OCA3 are the most prevalent forms of albinism among black people in Southern Africa.

The importance of albinism awareness lies in dismantling stereotypes, promoting inclusivity, and advocating for those with this condition. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental for tailored care, as albinism presents unique challenges, including vision impairment and heightened susceptibility to skin conditions. With heightened awareness, individuals with albinism can access timely and specialized medical interventions, optimizing their overall health and quality of life. The journey toward effective treatment encompasses not only medical support but also societal acceptance and educational initiatives to empower those affected by albinism. By fostering a culture of awareness, diagnosis, and treatment, we create a more compassionate and informed world for individuals living with albinism.

It is a set of disorders characterised by minimal or absent melanin synthesis, is commonly referred to as albinism. Individuals with albinism experience issues with their skin, hair, and vision. There are evident signs of albinism in a person's complexion, hair, and eyes.

The term "albinism," derived from the Latin albus, which means "white," refers to a set of inherited disorders marked by low or non-existent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues, particularly the skin, hair, and eyes, which results in a distinctive pallor. Oculocutaneous albinism is the most frequently considered presentation (OCA). Melanin synthesis mistakes give rise to a series of genetic illnesses known as OCA, which share phenotypic similarities. The eyes and skin experience the most dramatic impacts, as the name suggests. Depending on the OCA subtype, the skin symptoms might vary greatly in severity and appearance. Because melanin is essential to the development of the ocular tissues in utero, optic nerve fibres that are misdirected result in more consistent ocular symptoms of the disease.

  • Oculocutaneous albinism are the two primary types of albinism. Oculocutaneous -involves dilution of the skin, eye, and hair colours most prevalent type of albinism
  • Ocular- Melanin Pigment mostly absent from the eyes, with normal-looking skin and hair appearing somewhat lighter makes up 10–15% of all cases of albinism. Depending on the precise albinism gene involved, a set of various kinds of albinism are referred to as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Two kinds of oculocutaneous albinism are the most prevalent: type 1 and type 2.


When the body is unable to synthesise or spread melanin due to one of numerous genetic abnormalities, albinism results. Families passed these defects on to one another (inherited).

The term "oculocutaneous albinism" refers to the most severe type of the disease. Individuals with this kind of albinism have pink or white skin, hair, and iris colour. They also experience visual issues.

Only the eyes are impacted by ocular albinism type 1 (OA1), another kind of albinism. The individual's skin and eye colours are typically within normal limits. But an examination of the eyes will reveal that the retina, or back of the eye, is colourless.

A single gene mutation results in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a kind of albinism. It develops in cases of blood disorders, as well as bowel, renal, and lung conditions.


The following symptoms are present in people with albinism:

  • a lack of colour in the skin, hair, or eyes that is paler than the average amount of colour in those areas
  • areas of skin devoid of pigmentation

Vision issues are a common occurrence in albinism and might include:

  • crossed eyes, or strabismus
  • sensitivity to light, or photophobia, and involuntary fast eye movements, or nystagmus
  • reduced vision or total blindness
  • the astigmatic

Diagnostic Analysis

In order to manage ocular symptoms and maximise visual potential—which has further implications for education, esteem for oneself, overall health and wellness, and cognitive development—early identification is necessary.

Genetic Testing

In genetic testing, DNA is examined. DNA is a chemical database that contains instructions on how the body should work. Genetic testing reveals modifications or mutations. In laboratories, there are three main kinds of genetic testing available: molecular (which examines for minuscule DNA mutations), biochemical (which measures the amount of protein made by genes), and cytogenetic (which examines entire chromosomes).

Some commonly used genetic testing kits are DNA extraction kits, Polymerase Chain Reaction Kits, DNA Sequencing kits, Sanger sequencing kits, etc. The manufacturing of these kits is undertaken by various biotechnology and life science companies. Some notable companies are Thermo Fisher Scientific, Illumina, Qiagen, Roche Diagnostics, etc.


The electrical response of the rods and cones, the light-sensitive cells of the eye, is measured by a procedure called electroretinography. Together with input from retinal glia, the ERG is produced by direct currents produced by retinal neurons. Crucially, under physiological settings, the ERG can be captured non-invasively and provides an objective measure of retinal function. A thin fibre electrode applied to the cornea or an electrode inserted into a contact lens for the cornea are commonly used to capture ERGs. These electrodes allow the ocular surface to record the electrical activity produced by the retina. Diffuse flashes or patterned stimuli can trigger the ERG.

Diagnostic Market Players and Diagnostic Products

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Products

Mckesson Corporation


Microtrack Surgicals


Evolution Vision

MyHeritage DNA

Epic Systems Corporation


Namco National Medicine Co


Nutech Jetting Equipments India Private Limited


Konan Medical USA


Ank Cares Pvt Ltd


Allied International Llc


Aura Biotechnologies Private Limited




Roche Diagnostics





Treatment Analysis

There is no known cure for the hereditary disorder albinism, which affects people throughout their lives hence most doctors do not prescribe the medication to patients. As a result, the main goals of treatment are to reduce symptoms and monitor skin changes.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Nitisinone as a treatment for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, which is characterised by elevated plasma tyrosine levels and increased pigmentation of the hair and eyes. Nitisinone (Orfadin) may soon be used as an eye albinism therapy.


  • Surgery of extraocular muscle- When alternative therapies have failed to correct misaligned eyes, strabismus surgery, also known as eye muscle surgery, is performed. By cutting or folding the muscles, a surgeon can shorten or tighten them. A surgeon may occasionally manipulate a muscle to loosen it.
  • Nystagmus surgery- Nystagmus surgery helps minimise the "shaking" of the eyes back and forth and attempts to decrease the amplitude of nystagmus with either an improvement in visual acuity or a reduction of an uncomfortable head posture. All of these techniques have varying degrees of effectiveness, depending on the specifics of each case.


  • Skincare- This involves having a skin examination done at least once a year to check for cancerous growths or skin cancerous patches. Melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer that manifests as pink or red growths or moles. It is recommended to consistently apply sunscreen that offers protection against UVA and UVB rays, with an SPF of 30 or higher.
  • Avoiding Sun Exposure- Avoid prolonged or high-risk sun exposure at all costs. Long stretches of time outside, midday, high altitudes, being on or near water, and sunny days with little to no cloud cover are a few examples.
  • Eye Care- Put on dark, UV-blocking sunglasses to protect your eyes. Photochromic lenses, a type of transition lens that darkens in intense light, are an additional choice.

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Market Players

Johnson & Johnson Services



GlaxoSmithKline PLC




Laboratoires Genevrier

Allerga Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals

AVITA Medicals


Mckesson Corporation

Clinuvel Pharmaceutical



Recent Development

  • In order to better understand eye disorders associated with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) created the first patient-derived stem cell model in January 2022. The model will be used by the researchers to investigate the effects of pigmentation loss on the physiology and function of the retinal pigment epithelium.
  • In June 2021, National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation released a call for a proposal with the grant of $100,000 that was solely focused on research into the development of treatment and biomarkers for all forms of albinism.

Competitive Analysis

Global demand for albinism drugs is being driven by a number of factors, including increased incidence of genetic diseases, expanding knowledge of albinism treatment options, technical advancements, growing regulatory bodies' particular instructions, and growing albinism research. Approximate estimates place the prevalence of OCA in western industrialised countries at 1 in 17,000 worldwide. Because hereditary gene deficiencies account for 80% of rare disorders, albinism falls within the category of rare diseases. However, there are often no reliable treatments for these illnesses. Because of this, the market for drugs for albinism is extremely narrow.

Clinical Trial Assessment

Phase 2

Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol



DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) assists manufacturers in developing and implementing viable remedies to interrupt and manage Albinism epidemics. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for diagnostic tools, clinical evaluations, and innovative therapies as a result of greater awareness and estimated epidemics.

DLI services offer essential knowledge and expertise to major stakeholders involved in the manufacture of therapeutic goods. DiseaseLandscape Insights' support makes it easier for market participants to organize and carry out clinical trials for innovative medicines and pharmaceuticals, patient recruiting tactics, and regulatory compliance.

Ultimately, this encourages the leaders to perform qualitative research, explore the manufacturing organizations, and learn about raw material suppliers.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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