Glomerulonephritis Disease

Published Date : Nov 2023
Category : Chronic Diseases
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Cracking the Composite Web of Glomerulonephritis: An Innate Descent into Grounds, Indicators, and Medication Tactics

Inflammation of the glomeruli, microscopic structures that carry out the kidneys' filtering function, results in glomerulonephritis (GN).

According to NIH, In the US, 10% to 15% of end-stage renal disease patients are caused by glomerulonephritis. When prompt attention is not received, the condition typically progresses and eventually results in morbidity. 10% of dialysis patients have chronic glomerulonephritis, making it the third most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, after hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Of all end-stage renal disease cases, 25% to 30% have glomerulonephritis; around 25% of patients also have nephritic syndrome.

In countries like the Caribbean, Africa, India, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, South America, and Malaysia, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is still far more common. In Port Harcourt, Nigeria, the incidence of acute glomerulonephritis in children aged 3 to 16 years was 15.5 cases per year, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.1:1; the situation is essentially unchanged today.

Furthermore, according to the NIH, acute nephritis can manifest at any age, even infancy. Children between the ages of 5 and 15 are typically the ones that get post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Just 10% of incidents include patients who are 40 years of age or older. Children under the age of six are frequently affected by outbreaks.

A group of diseases known as glomerulonephritis, commonly referred to as nephritis or nephrotic syndrome, affects the glomeruli, the parts of the kidney responsible for filtering blood. A subset of renal illnesses collectively referred to as glomerulonephritis is defined by immune-mediated injury to the mesangium, the capillary endothelium, or the basement membrane, which causes hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia. An injured kidney makes it unable to eliminate waste products and surplus fluid from the body. Kidney failure could occur if the condition worsens and the kidneys quit functioning entirely. The majority of glomerulonephritis varieties are thought to be progressive illnesses.

Two types of glomerulonephritis are there:

Acute glomerulonephritis (GN) forms: Either a main renal cause or a secondary sickness causing renal symptoms is the cause of it.

Chronic glomerulonephritis: It is further classified based on the location of deposits on electron microscopy. Histologically, it is characterized by diffuse thickening of the Glomerulus Basement Membrane (GBM) and endocapillary growth.


The glomerulus is the kidney's filtration organ. There are thousands of glomeruli in each kidney. The glomeruli aid in the body's removal of toxic materials. glomerulonephritis brought on by immune system dysfunction. This condition's precise cause is frequently unknown. Urine loses blood and protein due to damage to the glomeruli. Kidney function is lost in a matter of weeks or months as a result of the fast-developing illness. Glomerulonephritis with rapid progression is the term for this. There are those who have chronic glomerulonephritis but have never had renal illness.

There are several factors that either cause or increase the chance of glomerulonephritis, including:

  • Amyloidosis is a condition where the protein amyloid accumulates in the tissues and organs.
  • illness that affects the kidney's glomerular basement membrane, which aids in removing waste and surplus fluid from the circulation
  • Blood vascular conditions like polyarteritis or vasculitis
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or glomerular scarring
  • Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: a condition where the glomeruli are attacked by the immune system
  • Syndrome of analgesic nephropathy (kidney disease brought on by excessive use of analgesics, particularly NSAIDs)
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a condition characterized by glomerulonephritis, joint discomfort, gastrointestinal issues, and purple spots on the skin
  • IgA nephropathy is a condition where the antibodies IgA accumulate in the renal tissue.
  • Nephritis induced by lupus (a condition of the kidney)


  • Blood in the urine: Regardless of the underlying cause, this is the primary sign of glomerulonephritis. Hematuria is the therapeutic term for blood in the urine.
  • Urine often has a brown tint, akin to cola, but occasionally takes on a reddish hue. (Rare instances of bright red blood in urine)
  • Sometimes, despite the urine appearing normal, testing reveals the presence of blood or red blood cells, or a small amount of blood is visible for a few days or several weeks.
  • Even when the youngster is drinking enough liquids, there is a decreased amount of urine.
  • A urine test (urine analysis) reveals the presence of protein in the urine. (Reduction in kidney function may occur.)
  • High blood pressure results in headaches or seizures if it is too high.
  • Pain in the side or abdomen, typically not very severe.
  • swelling (edema) of the subcutaneous tissues, usually in the lower limbs and feet.
  • At times, glomerulonephritis develops as a side effect of other long-term illnesses such as sickle cell disease or lupus erythematosus.

Diagnostic Analysis

The diagnostic approach for glomerulonephritis is useful in evaluating the degree of damage as well as the probable cause. The techniques for diagnosis are as follows:

Blood Test

C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, immunoglobulins, serum electrolytes, and complete blood count are all measured by blood tests.

  • Liver function tests: Also referred to as liver panels, these are blood tests that measure several proteins, enzymes, and other chemicals produced by the liver. These examinations assess your liver's general condition. Several tests are frequently conducted concurrently on one blood sample for the various drugs. Among these are albumin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD).
  • Test for Renal Function: Renal function by measuring or estimating the glomerular filtration rate, tests are performed to evaluate the overall health of the kidneys. The GFR is estimated to ascertain whether renal impairment is present. It includes urinalysis, Serum creatinine test, and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test.

Kidney Biopsy

A kidney biopsy is a technique in which a medical practitioner removes one or more microscopic kidney tissue samples and examines the samples under a microscope. When other tests, such as ultrasounds or blood and urine tests, are unable to detect scarring, inflammation (swelling), or protein deposits, this method is utilized to detect them.

Imaging Test

  • Abdominal CT-Scan: Using x-rays, an abdominal CT scan exam produces cross-sectional images of the abdomen. The acronym for computed tomography is CT. A pelvic CT is sometimes performed in conjunction with an abdominal CT. This test looks for the causes of blood in the urine, edema or pain in the abdomen, and abnormal blood test findings, such as issues with the kidneys or liver.
  • Renal Ultrasound: During a renal ultrasound, sound waves are used to create images of the bladder, ureters, and kidneys. An ultrasonic scanner uses sound waves to scan the kidney region, recording images on a computer. The interior anatomy of the kidneys and adjacent organs is depicted in the black-and-white pictures.
  • Chest X-ray: This is useful to check for any of the symptoms of pulmonary hemorrhage.

Diagnosis Market Players

                                                     Diagnosis Market Players

Imaging Tests

Tissue Sampling

General Electric Company (GE Healthcare)

Roche Diagnostics


Danaher Corporation

Siemens Healthineers

Abbott Laboratories

Med Imaging Solutions

Hologic, Inc.

Canon Medical Systems Corporation

Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD)

Gastro diagnostic.Ltd

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

Fujifilm Holdings Corporation (FUJIFILM Medical Systems)

Genomic Health, Inc.

Hitachi, Ltd.

Guardant Health, Inc.

Toshiba Corporation

Biocept, Inc.

Philips Healthcare

Hipro Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.

Shimadzu Corporation


Thermo Fisher Scientific


Bristol-Myers Squibb Company


Esaote S.p.A.


Neusoft Medical Systems Co., Ltd.


Mindray Medical International Limited


Genomic Health, Inc.


Agilent Technologies, Inc.


Radiance Imaging system


                                                             Diagnosis Products

Imaging Tests

Tissue Sampling

SIGNA™ Architect


Optima™ CT






Discovery™ CT




SIGNA™ Pioneer


Revolution™ CT


Discovery™ PET/CT

BD Vacutainer®



VUE Point™ FX


Discovery™ MI

BD SurePath™


BD Vacutainer®




Treatment Analysis

The cause and symptoms of glomerulonephritis determine how to treat it.

Sometimes the only thing required is to treat the underlying problem, such as by taking medicine to control excessive blood pressure. Antibiotics cure the infection if it is the root cause.


  • Immunosuppressants: If glomerulonephritis is brought on by the immune system, immunosuppressants are utilized. The immune system is suppressed by this medication. Although immune system suppression works well, it also raises your risk of infections and can have unintended consequences like osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones. Corticosteroids are also used to reduce inflammation.
  • Blood pressure-lowering medications: These include angiotensin blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors. It restricts the amount of water and sodium that is eliminated from the body. ACE inhibitors include enalapril, Fosinopril, Captopril, and Benazepril.
  • Diuretics: Water pills, or diuretics, are medications that aid in the removal of excess fluid and salt from the body. Thiazide diuretics, like Hydrochlorothiazide, help the kidneys eliminate excess water and salt while preventing excessive potassium loss.


Dialysis is used to treat acute renal failure brought on by glomerulonephritis connected to infection. Dialysis makes use of a machine that filters blood and functions similarly to an external, prosthetic kidney. The body accumulates waste materials and fluids to potentially harmful levels. If treatment is not received, this leads to extremely unpleasant symptoms that can potentially be fatal. Before this occurs, dialysis removes undesirable materials and fluids from the blood.

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Products

Pfizer Inc.


Sandoz Inc.


Abbott Laboratories,


Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.


Biogen Inc,




Johnson & Johnson.


Merck KGaA


B. Braun Melsungen AG


Terumo Corporation


Microvention Inc.


Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.


Upsher-Smith Laboratories, LLC,


Bristol-Myers Squibb Company


GlaxoSmithKline Plc


Zydus Cadila Healthcare Ltd.



Recent Development

In October 2023 TGA approved Benzylpenicillin benzathine 1.2 million I.U powder and solvent for suspension for injection of Brancaster Pharma, UK for the treatment of acute Glomerulonephritis.

Clinical Trial Assessment

The DiseaseLandscape Insights consultancy firm provides valuable support in future market trends on the development of new pharmaceutical products. This support helps to streamline the planning and execution of clinical trials of novel medications and treatments, implement effective patient recruitment strategies, ensure regulatory compliance, and increase the likelihood of successful trial outcomes.

The below table gives information about some currently ongoing clinical trials, including their study titles and respective stages:

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Study of HRS-5965 in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Renal Insufficiency

Daratumumab for Treatment of Proliferative Glomerulonephritis with Monoclonal Immune Deposits

Phase III Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Pegcetacoplan in Patients with C3 Glomerulopathy or Immune-Complex Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

Huaiqihuang Granule in CKD Stage 3 Primary Glomerulonephritis

Study of ARO-C3 in Adult Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Complement Mediated Renal Disease

Evaluation of a Renin Inhibitor, Aliskiren, Compared to Enalapril, in C3 Glomerulopathy

Clinical Study of Rituximab for the Treatment of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy with Nephrotic Syndrome

Huaiqihuang Granule in CKD Stage 3 Primary Glomerulonephritis

A First in Human Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacology of HS-10390 in Healthy Subjects

Study Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Pegcetacoplan in Post-Transplant Recurrence of C3G or IC-MPGN

Study of Efficacy and Safety of Iptacopan in Participants With IC-MPGN

Effectiveness of Mycophenolate Mofetil Combined with Tacrolimus for Steroid Tapering in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

A Phase I Clinical Study of Recombinant Humanized Anti-CD20(B-lymphocyte Antigen CD20) Monoclonal Antibody Subcutaneous Injection in the Treatment of Primary Membranous Nephropathy

A Study to Assess Effectiveness and Safety of Efgartigimod in Chinese Patients with Primary Membranous Nephropathy (ZL-1103-014)

A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Zanubrutinib in Participants with Primary Membranous Nephropathy

MMF Versus CYC in the Induction Therapy of Pediatric Active Proliferative LN

A Clinical Study of MIL62 in Primary Membranous Nephropathy

A Study to Investigate Safety and Effect of Sparsentan in Combination with SGLT2 Inhibition in Participants with IgAN

A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of RO7434656 in Participants with Primary Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy at High Risk of Progression

Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Versus Mycophenolate in Lupus Nephritis



DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) assists manufacturers in developing and implementing viable remedies to interrupt and manage the glomerulonephritis epidemic. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for diagnostic tools, and clinical evaluations, because of greater awareness and estimated epidemics.

DiseaseLandscape Insights offers essential knowledge and expertise to major stakeholders involved in the manufacture of therapeutic goods. DLI support makes it easier for market participants to organize and carry out clinical trials for innovative medicines and pharmaceuticals, patient recruiting tactics, and regulatory compliance. By understanding disease patterns, treatment needs, and technological advancements, companies tailor their products and services to meet evolving demands and foster business expansion and success.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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