Cirrhosis Disease

Published Date : Dec 2023
Category : Chronic Diseases
Delivery Timeline : 48 hrs
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Advocating for Cirrhosis Diagnosis, Treatment, and Inspiring Progress

Raising awareness about cirrhosis is crucial in promoting early detection and intervention. Cirrhosis, a condition characterized by scarring of the liver tissue, often progresses silently, making timely diagnosis imperative for effective treatment. Increased awareness not only aids in recognizing symptoms but also encourages regular screenings, especially for individuals at higher risk. Early diagnosis allows healthcare professionals to implement appropriate interventions, potentially slowing down disease progression and preventing complications. Furthermore, emphasizing the significance of lifestyle modifications, such as alcohol cessation and a healthy diet, plays a pivotal role in preventing and managing cirrhosis. By fostering awareness, we empower individuals to prioritize liver health, seek timely medical attention, and ultimately contribute to better outcomes in the fight against cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is significant for chronic liver damage and inflammation. The exact prevalence of cirrhosis worldwide is unknown, though, it has been estimated to be between 0.15% and 0.27%, where it accounted for more than 25,000 deaths and 373,000 hospital discharges in the United States stated by NCBI. Cirrhosis is characterized by diffuse hepatic fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver, secondary to a chronic injury, which leads to alteration of the normal lobular organization of the liver. The liver gets damaged by a variety of assaults, such as toxins, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or genetic disorders. The liver grows scar tissue, or fibrosis, after every injury, initially without losing function. The majority of liver tissue fibrosis occurs during protracted damage, resulting in function loss and the onset after a long-time injury, most of the liver tissue gets fibrosed, which leads to loss of function and the development of cirrhosis. According to NCBI, cirrhosis affects approximately 2.2 million adults in the US. From 2010 to 2021, the annual mortality of cirrhosis increased from 14.9 per 100,000 to 21.9 per 100,000 people.

Cirrhosis is classified into three types based on morphology micronodular, macronodular, and mixed.

Micronodular cirrhosis (uniform nodules with a diameter of less than 3 mm): Hemochromatosis, alcohol-related cirrhosis, chronic biliary obstruction, hepatic venous outflow blockage, jejunoileal bypass, and Indian childhood cirrhosis.

Macronodular cirrhosis: Irregular nodules with a diameter variation larger than 3 mm are known as macronodular cirrhosis. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, primary biliary cholangitis, and cirrhosis brought on by hepatitis B and C.

Mixed cirrhosis: When characteristics of both macronodular and micronodular cirrhosis are present, the condition is known as mixed cirrhosis. Over time, micronodular cirrhosis typically develops into macronodular cirrhosis.

Liver cirrhosis is caused by a variety of cells, including hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells including Kupffer cells (KCs), sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). HSCs are a component of the liver sinusoids' wall and are responsible for storing vitamin A. These cells become activated, change into myofibroblasts, and begin accumulating collagen when they are exposed to inflammatory cytokines, which causes fibrosis. The fenestrations that SECs create in the wall to facilitate the exchange of fluid and nutrients between the sinusoids and the hepatocytes are what distinguish them from other endothelial lining cells.

Cirrhosis often has no symptoms until liver damage is severe. When cirrhosis symptoms occur, they include fatigue, easy bleeding, or bruising, loss of appetite, nausea, and swelling in the legs, feet, or ankles, called edema, weight loss, itchy cirrhosis skin rash, yellow discoloration in the skin and eyes, called jaundice, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, called ascites (uh-SAHY-tees), spiderlike blood vessels on the skin, redness in the palms of the hands.

One of the most common causes of death, particularly in underdeveloped nations, is chronic liver disease. It has been seen recently that chronic liver disease is becoming more common. Hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic viral hepatitis, including hepatitis B and C, and alcoholic cirrhosis account for the bulk of chronic liver illnesses in the developed world. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention's National Vital Statistics Report states that 4.5 million adults in the US, or 1.8 percent of the adult population, have cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were the cause of 41,473 deaths which is 12.8 deaths per 100,000 people.

Autopsy studies of NCBI have discovered fatty liver disease in 70% of overweight persons and in 35% of persons of normal weight, as well as exposed cirrhosis in 18.5% of overweight diabetics.

0.5% of the German population is recurrently infected with the hepatitis B virus, and 0.5% with the hepatitis C virus. Cirrhosis and HCC due to chronic hepatitis C are among the main indications for liver transplantation in Western countries, viral hepatitis is the primary cause of liver disease in 39% of liver transplant recipient’s hepatitis B in one-third of cases, and hepatitis C in two-thirds of cases.

The development of new techniques and novel products for liver cirrhosis treatment and diagnosis of cirrhosis has been considered an essential part of increasing the opportunities for the industry player. As a result, it contributes to the outsourcing of the expanding items.

DiseaseLandscape Insights assists in making informed judgments in the field of medical technology, medicines, and diagnostics, where different technologies and spectacular breakthroughs alter the landscape, resulting in increased growth.

Cirrhosis Diagnostic Analysis:

The biliary cirrhosis diagnosis of cirrhosis depends upon the etiology and complications of the disease. If the doctor diagnoses cirrhosis, a diagnosis is based on medical history, a physical exam, and the results of blood tests and imaging tests.

  • Family and Medical History

The doctor asks about biliary cirrhosis symptoms and whether a person has a history of health conditions that increase the risk of developing cirrhosis. When taking a medical history, a doctor asks about any recent changes in weight or appetite, alcohol use, prescription and over-the-counter medicines or herbal supplements. The doctor also asks about a family history of conditions, including liver conditions.

  • Physical Exam

In a physical exam, the doctor looks for jaundice or a yellowish tint to the whites of the eyes and skin, checks the skin for rashes and legs for swelling, and uses a stethoscope to listen to the heart, lungs, and abdomen or belly, press on different areas of abdomen to check for swelling or tenderness and check if the liver has become larger.

  • Blood Tests

Following blood tests are recommended for cirrhosis patients.

  • Liver Tests – This test shows liver enzyme levels are higher or lower than normal, which is a sign of liver damage. Doctors suspect cirrhosis if a person has-
    • Higher levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase.
    • Higher levels of bilirubin.
    • Lower levels of blood proteins called albumin or higher levels of blood proteins called immunoglobulins.
  • Complete blood count, which shows signs of cirrhosis of infection and anemia that is caused by internal bleeding.
  • Tests for viral infections to see if a person has hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
  • Tests for autoimmune liver conditions, which include the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) tests.

·       Imaging Tests

Imaging tests show the size, shape, and texture of the liver and show how much fat is stored in the liver. Some tests also measure the stiffness of the liver. Cirrhosis increases liver stiffness. Doctor use one or more of the following imaging tests.

CT and MRI with distinction detect HCC and vascular lesions, with MRI being more superior to CT. MRI is also be used to detect the level of iron and fat deposition in the liver for hemochromatosis and steatosis, and biliary obstruction if an MRC (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography) is obtained. MRI, however, is expensive and not readily available.

  • Ultrasound - Ultrasound of liver cirrhosis uses a hand-held device, called a transducer that bounces safe, painless sound waves off organs to create an image of their structure. Ultrasonography is a cheap, non-invasive, and available modality for the evaluation of cirrhosis. It detects nodularity and increased echogenicity of the liver, which are seen in cirrhosis; however, it is nonspecific as these results are seen in fatty liver as well.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - MRI uses radio waves and magnets to produce detailed images of organs and soft tissues without using x-rays.
  • X-Ray Tests - Like computed tomography (CT) scans , use a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create images of the liver.
  • Elastography - A special test that measures the stiffness of the liver. An increase in liver stiffness may be a sign of fibrosis, or scarring. Your doctor can use stiffness measures to see if you may have cirrhosis and whether liver scarring is getting better or worse.
  • Liver Biopsy

Doctor performs a liver biopsy to see how much damaging is in liver. A liver biopsy diagnoses cirrhosis when the results of other tests are unclear. The biopsy also help doctor identify the cause of cirrhosis. During a liver biopsy, a doctor will use a needle to take small pieces of tissue from the liver. A pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope.

DiseaseLandscape Insights provides data on current market participants and their products to gain a better knowledge of market dynamics, and it also helps industry leaders with the development of different diagnostic kits and the use of new technologies to improve current diagnostic procedures. DLI services help companies stay competitive, manage the industry's complicated needs, and improve public health by improving cirrhosis diagnostics.



Hipro Biotechnology

Prealbumin (PA) Blood Test


PPI270A01 Liver Function Test

Hisky Medical Technologies

Liver cirrhosis ultrasound elastography system FT1000

Zecen Biotech Co., Ltd

Liver disease test kit



Melrose Biotechnology

Liver Function Test Kit

GP Getein Biotech,Inc.

AFP Fast Test Kit


Treatment Analysis

Treatment for cirrhosis depends on the cause and extent of liver damage. The objectives of treatment are to slow the development of scar tissue in the liver and to prevent or treat alcohol cirrhosis symptoms and complications of cirrhosis of the liver. Patient sometimes need to be hospitalized if have severe liver damage.

In initial cirrhosis, it is possible to minimize damage to the liver by treating the underlying cause. The options include:

  • Treatment for Alcohol Dependency - Persons with cirrhosis caused by extreme alcohol use should stop drinking. If stopping alcohol use is difficult, doctor indorse a biliary cirrhosis treatment program for alcohol addiction. If person have cirrhosis, it is very important to stop drinking since any amount of alcohol is toxic to the liver.
  • Weight Loss - Persons with cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic cirrhosis fatty liver disease become healthier if they lose weight and control their blood sugar levels.
  • Medicines to Control Cirrhosis - Medicines limit further damage to liver cells caused by hepatitis B or C through specific treatment of viruses. Medicines slow the progression of definite types of liver cirrhosis. For example, for people with primary biliary cirrhosis cholangitis that is diagnosed early, medicine significantly delays progression to cirrhosis. Other medicines also relieve certain symptoms of Cirrhosis, such as itching, fatigue and pain. Nutritional supplements are prescribed to counter malnutrition related to cirrhosis.
  • Liver Transplant Surgery - In advanced cases of cirrhosis, when the liver stops working properly, a liver transplant is the only treatment option. A liver transplant is a procedure to replace liver with a healthy liver donor. Cirrhosis is one of the most common reasons for a liver transplant.

Researchers are working to increase current treatments for cirrhosis, but success has been limited. As cirrhosis has a variation of causes and complications, there are many potential avenues of approach. A combination of increased screening, lifestyle changes and new medicines increases consequences for people with liver damage. Researchers are working on therapies that will specifically target liver cells, help to slow, or even reverse the fibrosis that leads to cirrhosis.

Treatment Market Players:





Curewell Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd


Zydus Cadila




Sun Pharmaceutical


Zeelab Pharmacy Pvt Ltd


RPG Life Sciences Ltd



Regulatory Framework Analysis-

The regulatory framework governing the cirrhosis disease market is a critical factor in ensuring patient safety, treatment efficacy, and market integrity. Regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Therapeutic Drug Administration (TGA), and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), have set rigorous standards for the approval of cirrhosis-related drugs, and therapies.

On 7 February 2022, TGA approved MAVIRET sponsored by AbbVie Pty Ltd where active ingredients are Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. MAVIRET (film-coated tablet; granules) is now available for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients 3 years and older with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infections with or without compensated cirrhosis. This includes patients with HCV GT1 infection who were earlier treated with either treatment of an NS5A inhibitor or with an NS3/4A protease inhibitor but not both classes of inhibitors.

Clinical Trial Analysis-

The importance of clinical trials in the field of evidence-based medicine and healthcare transition has been highlighted by the government's growing emphasis on comparative effectiveness studies. One of the main goals of the healthcare revolution is achieved with the assistance of clinical data, which allows market participants to compare medical therapies accurately.

The table below highlights the study titles of the ongoing clinical trials as well as the stages in which they are taking place.

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Safety and Efficacy Study of Human Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Hepatic Cirrhosis

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Therapy in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Double-Blinded Single Centre Randomised Controlled Trial

A Prospective, Randomised Placebo-Controlled Feasibility Trial of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation in Cirrhosis

Combination of Autologous Mesenchymal and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Infusion in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis: A Pilot Study

An Open, Randomised Study to Compare the Reproducibility of CTP Rating and NRL972 Pharmacokinetics in Patient Volunteers with Hepatic Cirrhosis.

Growth Hormone Therapy and Its Effect on Nitrogen Metabolism and Malnutrition in Liver Cirrhosis

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Therapy in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Double-Blinded Single Centre Randomised Controlled Trial

A Pilot Study of the Effect of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Cirrhosis

A Study in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Liver Cirrhosis to Assess the Effects of Age, Gender, and Stable Liver Disease on the Clearance of Cholyl-Lysyl-Fluorescein (NRL972) as an in-vivo Marker of Liver Function in Man

A Multicentre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of IDN-6556 in Subjects with Liver Cirrhosis

Growth Hormone Therapy and Its Effect on Nitrogen Metabolism and Malnutrition in Liver Cirrhosis

Stop of Proton-pump Inhibitor Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis - a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

Clinical Study of Congener Allogeneic Hepatocyte Transplantation Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

The Impact of Allopurinol of HRQOL in Cirrhotic Patients

A Multi-centre, Multi-national Open Study in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis to Characterise the Association Between the Pharmacokinetics of NRL972 and Disease Severity.

Optimized Treatment and Regression of HBV-induced Compensated Liver Cirrhosis

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Single Doses of Rivaroxaban and Apixaban in Patients with Compensated Liver Cirrhosis

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Assessment of Apixaban and Edoxaban in Patients with Child B Liver Cirrhosis

Oral Branched-chain Amino Acid Supplementation for Cirrhotic Patients with Sarcopenia: A Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Efficacy of Intravenous 'L-ornithine L-aspartate' in Reversal of Overt Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: a Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial


Conclusion -

DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) assists manufacturers in creating and carrying out practical strategies to prevent and manage outbreaks of Cirrhosis. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for better medications, clinical evaluations, and diagnostic tools because of rising awareness and anticipated epidemics.

DiseaseLandscape Insights offers critical knowledge and experience to major players in the pharmaceutical industry. Market participants are more readily planned and conduct clinical trials for new medications and pharmaceuticals, patient recruitment tactics, and regulatory compliance with the aid of DiseaseLandscape Insights.

All things considered, this encourages the leaders to investigate manufacturing firms, conduct qualitative research, and locate raw material suppliers. DLI services assist all industry players in gaining a stronger foothold in Cirrhosis and preserving a competitive edge.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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