Myocardial Infarction Disease

Published Date : Oct 2023
Category : Cardiovascular Diseases
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"Myocardial Infarction Global Concern: Prevalence, Trends, and Risk Factors"

Myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, is a common and potentially fatal cardiovascular disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide. In the industrialized world, acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of mortality. According to the (AHA journals), the illness affects around three million individuals globally, with more than one million fatalities occurring in the United States each year.

In the year 2020, around 22,200 persons suffered from Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), and nearly 5,000 died as a result of AMI. This worldwide health hazard is characterized by the abrupt stoppage of blood flow to a part of the heart muscle, usually owing to a coronary artery blockage. Without a regular flow of oxygen-rich blood, the heart muscle begins to deteriorate, which has serious repercussions.

Myocardial infarctions frequently have a specific set of symptoms. The most typical symptoms are pain or discomfort in the chest, which extends to the arms, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, cold chills, and a sense of impending doom are all possible symptoms. Early detection of these symptoms is critical since early care dramatically increases survival chances and reduces heart muscle damage.

Myocardial infarctions are generally caused by the progression of atherosclerosis, a disease in which fatty deposits (plaques) form in the coronary arteries, resulting in restricted blood flow or full blockage. These plaques burst, resulting in a blood clot that obstructs the artery and causes a heart attack. Hypertension, smoking, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and a family history of heart disease are all risk factors.

Acute myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction mortality rise with age, and males are more impacted regardless of age. In 2020, around 5% of all instances of acute myocardial infarction in men occurred among men under the age of 50. Acute myocardial infarction was about five times more prevalent in women aged 85 and older than in women aged 65 to 69. In 2020, it was three times more frequent among men.

According to NIH statistics, Acute MI still has a significant mortality rate, with the majority of fatalities occurring prior to hospitalization. At least 5%-10% of patients die within the first year of an MI, and almost half require hospitalization within the same year.

Understanding the frequency, symptoms, and causes of myocardial infarction is critical for public health programs, patient education, and improving global cardiovascular outcomes. The high prevalence of heart attacks is likely to boost the growth of the worldwide myocardial infarction market.

Because of the high frequency of myocardial infarction, North America has seen an increase in total post-acute myocardial infarction cases, while Asia-Pacific has dominated the total number of cases due to the susceptible aging population.

Major stakeholders in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors have been actively trying to alleviate the burden of myocardial infarction in the face of this formidable health crisis. Pharmaceutical firms, medical device makers, and healthcare services are among the market leaders. They are involved in a variety of initiatives aimed at preventing, detecting, and treating heart attacks in novel ways.

DiseaseLandscape Insights assists industry participants by offering extensive knowledge about all current market players, their inventions, tactics, and partnerships, as well as assisting in the selection of the appropriate marketplace to develop exponentially and work for improved health outcomes.

"Innovations in Myocardial Infarction Diagnostics"

A combination of diagnostic procedures, including laboratory testing, physical examination, imaging investigations, and, in rare circumstances, biopsies, is used to detect myocardial infarction (heart attack). Here's a more in-depth look at these methods:

  1. Laboratory Examinations:

          Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Cardiovascular biomarkers such as Troponin T and Troponin I, as well as creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and myoglobin, are measured in the standard laboratory test for myocardial infarction. Elevated blood levels of these biomarkers suggest myocardial injury.A complete blood count (CBC) aid in the detection of anemia or infection, both of which lead to cardiac symptoms or problems.

  1. Physical Examination:
  • Patient History: A thorough history-taking process, including questions about symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, and risk factors like smoking, family history, and hypertension, is essential.
  • Vital Signs: Monitoring blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation levels provides valuable information about the patient's condition.
  • Clinical Assessment: Examination of the chest for signs of heart failure, abnormal heart sounds (e.g., murmurs or gallops), and signs of shock or distress is crucial.
  1. Imaging Studies:
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): ECG is a fundamental tool for diagnosing myocardial infarction. It records the electrical activity of the heart and reveals characteristic changes, such as ST-segment elevation (STEMI) or depression (NSTEMI).
  • Echocardiography: This ultrasound-based imaging approach gives real-time pictures of the structure and function of the heart, assisting in the assessment of wall motion anomalies, valve function, and any problems such as cardiac tamponade.
  • Cardiac CT scan or MRI: These imaging modalities provide detailed information about the heart's structure, blood flow, and any obstructions or damage to the coronary arteries.

Emerging Detection Methods:

  • Coronary Angiography: In this invasive treatment, a contrast dye is injected into the coronary arteries to see blockages or stenosis. It is frequently used for individuals who have severe symptoms or require intervention.
  • Nuclear Medicine Imaging: Nuclear stress tests and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans can monitor blood flow to the heart muscle, assisting in the identification of regions with inadequate perfusion.
  • CT Angiography (CTA): CTA uses computed tomography to visualize coronary arteries and assess for blockages or stenosis.
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET): PET scans offer extensive information regarding myocardial perfusion and metabolism, which help with the diagnosis and assessment of a heart attack.
  • Endomyocardial Biopsy: In this invasive technique, a tiny tissue sample from the heart's lining is obtained in order to diagnose some uncommon disorders or determine the amount of myocardial damage in certain circumstances.
  • Risk Stratification Scores: Tools such as the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) scores assist in evaluating the probability of unfavorable outcomes in myocardial infarction patients.

The diagnostic procedures used are determined by the patient's appearance, the severity of symptoms, and the healthcare provider's clinical judgment. In persons having a heart attack, prompt and precise diagnosis is crucial for initiating appropriate treatment and reducing the risk of sequelae.

Diagnostic tests are often done in public laboratories that are outfitted with the required equipment as well as highly trained personnel. The market for heart attack diagnostics is highly saturated, and numerous industrial businesses are contributing to this area.

Industry businesses have the chance to develop breakthrough low-cost, accurate, and speedy biopsy techniques by utilizing technology and substantial research. Diagnostic technique improvements and development raise the bar for major stakeholders.

The table below lists the names of industry players who are altering the MI diagnostic area with their sophisticated tactics and products.

                                                                          Diagnostic Market players

Imaging Studies


Laboratory Tests

Siemens Healthineers

Siemens Healthineers

Abbott Laboratories

GE Healthcare

Beckman Coulter

Roche Diagnostics

Philips Healthcare

Toshiba Medical Systems

Siemens Healthineers

Hitachi Healthcare


Beckman Coulter

Canon Medical System

Philips Healthcare

Bio-Rad Laboratories


GE Healthcare

Sysmex Corporation



Imaging Studies

CTA & PET Scan

Laboratory Tests


Celesteion PET/CT

Cardiac Biomarker Analyzer


BrightView XCT

cobas e 801 module (for troponin assays)


Discovery NM/CT 670

ADVIA 2120 Hematology System

Ingenuity CT

Symbia Intevo Bold

UniCel DxH 800 Hematology Analyzer

Vantage Galan 3T

SkyScan 1275

BioPlex 2200 System (with Troponin-I assay)


Albira Si

Sysmex HISCL-5000


Discovery NM/CT 670

ARCHITECT STAT High-Sensitivity Troponin-I


Treatment Analysis

"Evaluating the Efficacy of Current Myocardial Infarction Treatment Strategies"

Depending on the severity of the heart attack, the patient's overall condition, and the availability of healthcare resources, the precise treatment method may differ. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) treatment consists of a combination of treatments, surgery, and drugs. Here's a more in-depth look:

  1. Medications:
  • Antiplatelet Agents: Drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel are administered to prevent further blood clot formation in the coronary arteries.
  • Thrombolytics: In some cases, thrombolytic medications like tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are given to dissolve the blood clot causing the heart attack.
  • Anticoagulants: Medications like heparin are used to prevent new blood clots from forming and to minimize the risk of recurrent heart attacks.
  • Pain Relievers: Analgesics such as morphine are prescribed to relieve chest pain and discomfort.
  • Beta-Blockers: These medications reduce heart rate and blood pressure, relieving the heart's workload and preventing arrhythmias.
  • ACE Inhibitors or ARBs: These drugs help improve heart function and reduce the risk of heart failure.
  • Statins: Cholesterol-lowering drugs like atorvastatin are given to control lipid levels and reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events.
  1. Reperfusion Therapies:
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): This minimally invasive procedure involves inserting a catheter with a balloon and stent into the blocked artery to restore blood flow. Stents are often left in place to keep the artery open.
  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): CABG surgery may be required in extreme situations where numerous arteries are occluded. It entails leveraging blood veins from other regions of the body to generate new blood flow channels around the blocked arteries.
  1. Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are not commonly used to treat myocardial infarction. They, however, are given if there is an accompanying infection or if the patient has had surgery, such as CABG, to avoid post-surgical infections or before surgery.

During a heart attack, patients are frequently administered aspirin. By decreasing platelet aggregation, it helps to prevent additional blood clot formation. If delivered early, this is a lifesaving measure. During a heart attack, Nitroglycerin is used to ease chest discomfort (angina). It improves blood flow to the heart by dilating the coronary arteries.

Myocardial infarction treatment is highly individualized, with various therapies based on the patient's health, the level of coronary artery blockage, and other considerations. To minimize cardiac muscle damage and enhance results, immediate medical attention and intervention are required. Early action is critical to decreasing loss and improving outcomes, thus obtaining medical treatment as soon as a heart attack is suspected is critical.

The myocardial infarction therapy market provides different prospects for industry participants. The market participants concentrate on the creation of varied cost-effective therapeutic items, as well as the redevelopment of existing medications via the use of new technologies to improve patient health while improving the company's profit.

DiseaseLandscape Insights' market research and consulting services help important businesses stay upright in the field of myocardial infarction therapy. DLI offers full help in the planning, execution, and analysis of clinical trials for the development of new medications.

The following are the names of market competitors whose advances in treatment processes and goods are changing healthcare.

                                                                             Market Players for Myocardial Infraction






Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals



Bristol Myers Squibb


Boston Scientific



Terumo Interventional Systems



Cook Medical











TR Band Radial Compression Device

Edoxaban (Savaysa)


Absorb GT1 Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold System

Alirocumab (Praluent)


Xience Sierra Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System

Entresto (Sacubitril/Valsartan)


Zilver PTX Drug-Eluting Peripheral Stent

Ticagrelor (Brilinta)



Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)


Market Trend Analysis

"Emerging Therapies in the Myocardial Infarction Market: A Comprehensive Analysis"

Advances in diagnostics, treatment methods, and an increasing emphasis on preventative healthcare are driving substantial changes in market trends in the heart attack illness industry. One notable development is the growing use of precision medical methods. Genetic testing and biomarker analysis are increasingly being used by healthcare practitioners to adapt treatments and interventions for individual patients, optimizing results and minimizing side effects.

Furthermore, there is a growing demand for less invasive treatments such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which provide faster recovery periods and better patient outcomes than traditional open operations. Telehealth and remote monitoring technologies are also gaining traction, allowing for ongoing patient monitoring and post-therapy care while boosting overall patient involvement and treatment plan adherence.

Furthermore, the focus on lifestyle changes, such as better diets and increased physical exercise, is propelling the industry towards a preventative care model targeted at lowering the occurrence of heart attacks. These developments point to a rising emphasis in the heart attack illness market on personalized, less intrusive, and preventative methods.

Increasing product approvals are projected to drive the myocardial infarction market. The industry is always evolving, which fuels additional product releases and market development. Furthermore, there has been a significant increase in global public initiatives and programs to improve awareness of cardiovascular illnesses, which is expected to accelerate the rate of growth of the myocardial infarction market.

Competitive Analysis

"Myocardial Infarction Treatment Market: Competitive Assessment and Industry Insights"

A comprehensive competitive study of market participants in the heart attack disease market indicates a dynamic environment with numerous important competitors fighting for market share. Leading pharmaceutical corporations including Novartis, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca are important market players. They dominate the market with a diverse variety of medications for heart attack prevention and treatment, often participating in R&D to produce innovative treatments.

AstraZeneca plc., a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company, for example, received Fast Track Designation in the United States on July 16, 2020, for the development of Farxiga (dapagliflozin) to reduce the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular (CV) or heart failure (hHF) death in adults following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack.

Furthermore, universities and research institutes make a significant contribution by conducting studies and clinical trials, frequently in collaboration with pharmaceutical and medical device businesses. A rising number of clinical studies for the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer are predicted to boost the global myocardial infarction market's expansion. Recardio Inc., a clinical-stage life science company focused on regenerative treatments for cardiovascular diseases, completed its Phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, safety and efficacy study of dutogliptin in combination with filgrastim in an early recovery post-myocardial infarction in May 2021.

Medical Device manufacturers and companies such as Abbott Laboratories, Medtronic, and Boston Scientific, on the other hand, are significant participants, providing novel cardiac devices such as stents, pacemakers, and defibrillators. Their competitiveness is based on technical improvements and product reliability, and they, together with diagnostic firms like as Roche Diagnostics and Siemens Healthineers, play an important role in early detection and monitoring. They compete on the precision and efficiency of their diagnostic instruments, which include blood testing and imaging technology.

Numerous startups and big healthcare providers are entering the market with novel solutions such as artificial intelligence-powered diagnostic tools, wearable gadgets for continuous monitoring, and telehealth systems for remote patient management. With their speed and innovative innovations, these companies pose a threat to existing businesses. In this competitive market, large healthcare systems and hospital chains also play a role. They are competing to deliver the best cardiac care services, which include emergency care, surgical treatments, and post-operative care.

Innovative treatment alternatives, cost-effective solutions, smart collaborations, and significant marketing to reach healthcare professionals and patients are all part of competitive tactics. To keep their competitive advantage, market participants must adapt to evolving healthcare trends such as telemedicine and personalized medication. Collaboration between industrial divisions, such as pharmaceutical firms collaborating with medical device makers, is also becoming increasingly vital in the battle against heart disease.

Regulatory Framework Analysis

"The Evolving Landscape of Myocardial Infarction Market Regulations"

DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) analyses the regulatory standards for myocardial infarction from several countries. DLI provides practical insights on risk assessment, monitoring, and regulatory compliance. By using the data analyzed by DiseaseLandscape Insights organizations, and market players manage, and respond to flare-ups of myocardial infarction and ensure the safety of afflicted people.

Furthermore, due to product approvals by European regulatory bodies for the treatment of cardiac illnesses, the worldwide myocardial infarction market is predicted to develop significantly.

  • For example, Sanofi S.A., a global biopharmaceutical company focused on human health, announced in February 2021 that the European Commission had approved Pavix (clopidogrel) for use in adult patients with moderate to high-risk TIA or minor Ischemic Stroke (IS) within 24 hours of the TIA or IS event in combination with aspirin. This new indication allows for a 21-day trial period before initiating long-term single anti-platelet medication.

Overall, regulatory laws have a significant impact on the MI sector, and DLI provides an in-depth analysis of many regional standards that are already in place, as well as probable future changes in this disease market.

Clinical Trial Data Assessment -

The government's increased emphasis on comparing the efficacy of studies emphasizes the critical role of clinical trials in evidence-based medicine and health care reform. One of the primary goals of healthcare reform is achieved when market participants properly evaluate medical therapy using clinical data.

The study titles of the ongoing clinical trials, as well as the stages in which they are taking place, are included in the table below.

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Cardiac MRI-guided Deferiprone Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

Rituximab in Patients With ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Phase 2 Placebo-controlled Randomized Clinical Trial: RITA-MI 2

Multicenter Randomized Single-Blind Study of the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of GNR-060 (JSC "GENERIUM", Russia) Compared to Metalyse (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co.KG, Germany) in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

The Impact of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Compound Danshen Dropping Pills (CDDP) on the Post-myocardial Infarction Ventricular Remodeling: A Multicentre, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Pilot Study

Neuroinflammation After Myocardial Infarction - Imaging Substudy

SONO thrombolysis in Patients With an ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With fibrinolysis (SONOSTEMI-LYSIS) Trial

A Randomized, Open labeled, multicenter Trial for Safety and Efficacy of Intracoronary Adult Human Mesenchymal stem Cells Acute Myocardial infarction

Efficacy and Safety of a Half-dose Bolus of r-SAK Prior to Primary PCI in ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Multicenter Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial (OPTIMA-6)

A Multi-center, Controlled, Open, Phase I Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety of AMI-DC (Autologous Dendritic Cells) Treatment in Patients with Acute Anterior Wall ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Received Reperfusion by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition with Doxycycline to Prevent Adverse Remodeling After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Study

Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Morphine Versus Methoxyflurane in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Effect of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose On mortality and Cardiovascular Morbidity, and Quality of Life in Iron Deficient Patients with Recent Myocardial infarction SUBTITLE Prevention of Cardiovascular Death, Heart Failure Events and Deterioration in Quality of Life with Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Iron Deficient Patients With Recent Myocardial Infarction

Preliminary Evaluation of 64Cu-DOTA-ECL1i in Patients Post-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)

Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibition Improves Left Ventricular Function and Reduces Adverse Left-Ventricular Remodeling in High-Risk Patients with Microvascular Obstruction (MVO) Following ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).

A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Low-dose Intracoronary Tenecteplase in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients with High Microvascular Resistance Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI).

Discontinuation of β-blocker Therapy in Stabilized Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial

Cardio protection of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Through a Combined Antioxidant Therapy. A Phase I, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel, 3-arm, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of CDR132L in Patients with Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (≤ 45%) After Myocardial Infarction

The Myocardial Infarction and New Treatment with Metformin Study (MIMET) - an R-RCT to Study Metformin and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Newly Detected Prediabetes

Treatment with Beta-blockers After myocardial Infarction without Reduced Ejection fraction

Co-transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes and Autologous Mitochondria for Patients Candidate for CABG Surgery With EF< 25% (Clinical Trial Phase ])

Low-dose Dobutamine Infusion and Single-dose Tocilizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients with High Risk of Cardiogenic Shock Development - a 2x2 Multifactorial, Double-blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Adjunctive, Low-dose Intracoronary Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Versus Placebo for Primary PCI in Patients With ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Prasugrel Monotherapy Following primary percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction

A Phase I, Randomized Pilot Study of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in Patients with Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction Secondary to Myocardial Infarction (HECTOR)

Ticagrelor Monotherapy After Coronary Stenting in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction - A Prospective Single-centre, Single-arm Phase II Study

A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Intravenous FDY 5301 in Patients with an Anterior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Versus Standard Therapy in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Angiographic Evidence of No-reflow

A Single-dose, Open-label, Multi-center, Randomized, 2-treatment Crossover Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Safety, and Tolerability of Acetylsalicylic Acid Powder for Oral Inhalation with Non-enteric-coated Chewable Aspirin in Adult Subjects with Obstructive or Restrictive Pulmonary Function

A Multi-center, Controlled, Open, Phase I Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety of AMI-DC (Autologous Dendritic Cells) Treatment in Patients with Acute Anterior Wall ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Received Reperfusion by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

Dapagliflozin to Attenuate Cardiac Remodeling after acute Myocardial Infarction

Danish Trial of Beta-Blocker Treatment After Myocardial Infarction Without Reduced Ejection Fraction (DANBLOCK)



Disease Landscape Insights (DLI) recognizes the critical importance of understanding the disease, particularly when it comes to fighting heart disease. DLI's comprehensive services are intended to help the healthcare sector, its professionals, researchers, and other industry participants improve patient outcomes while strengthening and expanding their businesses.

By harnessing the power of extensive market research, our services provide invaluable insights into the latest advancements, treatment techniques, and emerging trends in the management of Myocardial infarctions. This enables healthcare professionals to make informed decisions, devise targeted strategies, and deliver personalized care to patients. Moreover, our disease landscape services serve as a catalyst for collaboration and innovation, fostering partnerships among industry stakeholders and researchers to drive advancements in the Myocardial infarction treatment and prevention market.

This allows market leaders to do concentrated R&D, learn about contract manufacturing organizations, discover raw material suppliers, and assure legal compliance for the business and expand globally.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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