Bullous Pemphigoid Disease

Published Date : Dec 2023
Category : Autoimmune Diseases
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"Fighting Bullous Pemphigoid (BP): Unravelling the Secrecies of a Rare Skin Disorder"

In the delicate symphony of skin, a relentless intruder weaves its havoc – Bullous Pemphigoid, a disease that turns the body's defences against itself, leaving behind a trail of blistering challenges. An autoimmune condition known as bullous pemphigoid (BP) develops when the body's immune system unintentionally targets and kills healthy bodily tissue. The proteins that hold the epidermis—the top layer of skin—to the dermis—are specifically targeted by the immune system.

According to NIH, BP affects people who are older than 60. In Central Europe, it affects 12 to 13 people per million, compared to 6 to 13 new cases per million in the United States each year. It doesn't discriminate based on race and affects men and women equally. Although it is uncommon, this illness manifest in children. Patients with BP were discovered to carry certain HLA class II alleles, such as the allele DQB1*0301 in White patients and the alleles DRB1*04, DRB1*1101, and DQB1*0302 in Japanese patients.

Furthermore, the report of PCDS organization UK states that bullous pemphigoid is most prevalent autoimmune blistering illness in the West, which has a documented occurrence of 4.3 per 100,000 people annually in the UK.

Bullous pemphigoid is an immunobullous disorder. Pathogenic autoantibodies against target antigens, which are involved in cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis or the adherence of stratified squamous epithelium to the dermis or mesenchyme, are the hallmarks of immunobullous diseases. Target antigens include elements of desmosomes or the adhesion complex, a basement membrane zone functional unit.

Bullous pemphigoid autoantibodies, primarily IgG, target the basement membrane zone, specifically the bullous pemphigoid antigens BP180 and BP230.

The pathophysiology of BP consists of two primary elements: inflammatory and immune-related. Autoantibodies against BP antigen 230 (BPAG1) and BP antigen 180 (BPAG2, or type XVII collagen), two portions of the basal keratinocyte hemidesmosomal proteins, make up the immunologic components. These antigens are crucial for the formation of adhesion complexes that facilitate the attachment of epithelial cells to stroma. Following autoantibodies' binding to their target antigen, complement and mast cells are activated, causing inflammation. This results in the production of different inflammatory cells from neutrophils and eosinophils, which in turn releases proteolytic enzymes that harm the dermal-epidermal junction.


Activated T lymphocytes (white blood cells) and IgG +/-IgE immunoglobulins (antibodies) attack the basement membrane of the epidermis to cause bullous pemphigoid. The protein BP180, commonly known as Type XVII collagen, or, less frequently, BP230, a plakin, is the target. These proteins are located in the collagen XVII NC16A domain. The hemidesmosomes, which guarantee that the epidermal keratinocyte cells adhere to the dermis to form a watertight seal, are linked to them.

Complement activation, the recruitment of neutrophils (acute inflammatory cells), and the release of proteolytic enzymes are caused by the binding of autoantibodies to proteins and the release of cytokines from T cells. These lead to subepidermal blister development and hemidesmosome destruction.

The presence of collagen XVII in the skin hemidesmosomes and central nervous system is hypothesised to be related to the link between neurological illnesses and bullous pemphigoid.


Severe itching and (often) huge, tense bullae (fluid-filled blisters) that burst to form crusted erosions are the symptoms of bullous pemphigoid.

Additional erratic symptoms consist of:

  • Blisters don't show up for a few weeks after a nonspecific rash
  • Areas of eczema that resemble nummular dermatitis
  • Red skin similar to urticaria
  • Annular lesions are ring-shaped.
  • less severe blisters, or vesicles
  • Nodules Prurigo (pemphigoid nodularis)
  • Blister fluid that is clear or hazy, yellowish or bloodstained
  • Pigmentation following inflammation
  • Milia in regions that have healed

Usually, bullous pemphigoid affects the limbs' flexor regions. It is confined to a single location or dispersed across the proximal limbs and trunk.

It frequently affects the skin near wrinkles. It is rare to get blisters in the genital area and inside the mouth.

Even though they do not have any bullae, some patients are diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid syndrome (non-bullous pemphigoid). This impacts every location on the body.

Diagnostic Analysis

Laboratory results and clinical interpretation are combined to make the diagnosis.

Physical examination: In older patients with itchy, red, hive-like spots, dermatologists suspect BP, even in the absence of blistering.

Skin Biopsy: A skin sample is extracted from the blister's edge, stained, and seen under a microscope. In BP, subepidermal blister formation is dominated by eosinophilic (an inflammatory cell type) infiltrate. Subepidermal refers to skin above the dermis and below the epidermis, the first layer of skin.

Direct immunofluorescence (DIF): This diagnostic technique is regarded as the gold standard. A biopsy is collected from the skin next to a lesion that appears normal. Immunoglobulin (IgG) and/or complement protein (C3) is linearly localised in BP DIF along the dermal-epidermal junction, or basement membrane. The DIF method finds complement deposits and immunoglobulin binding in tissue by using labelled antibodies.

Blood Test:

  • Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): This method finds bullous pemphigoid-specific autoantibodies in the serum or portion of blood. 75–90% of BP patients have anti-BP180 antibodies detected in them. 50–70% of BP patients have anti-BP230 antibodies found in them. Anti-BP180 antibody levels are correlated with disease activity and are used to assess therapy response in addition to aiding in the diagnosis of BP.
  • Indirect Immunofluorescence A method used in labs to find circulating autoantibodies in patient serum is called indirect immunofluorescence, sometimes called secondary immunofluorescence. The diagnosis of autoimmune blistering illnesses is done with it.

Many differential diagnoses, including pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus herpetiformis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, bullous lupus erythematosus, eczema, urticaria, prurigo, impetigo, erythema multiforme, sweet syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and autotoxic pruritus, should be taken into consideration because BP present in a polymorphic manner with non-bullous manifestations and blisters.

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Market Players

Diagnostic Kits

Med Morphosis LLP


Ribbel International Ltd.

Menghini Biopsy Needles

Nusurg Medical Systems


Netcare Surgicals Corporation


Biopsybell Medical


Chongqing Xishan Science & Technology

Skin biopsy punch HJSB1

Aesthetic Group






Chongqing Xishan Science & Technology


Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.


TCS Biosciences Ltd.

Crypto Cel


Giardia CELISA

CD Creative Diagnostics


J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, India

CDSimple™ Chemiluminescent ELISA

Calbiotech Inc., USA



Treatment Analysis

"Breakthrough Therapy Provides Positive Benefits in Bullous Pemphigoid Treatment: A Beacon of Hope for Patients"

The goal of treatment is to minimise the negative effects of medication while healing the skin and reducing irritation.


  • Corticosteroid: Systemic steroids, such as the pill-form drug Prednisone, are the most often used type of treatment. However, prolonged usage raises the risk of infection, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, weak bones, and diabetes. Once there are fewer than three large blisters, the prednisone dose is then gradually decreased over several months or years. Topical steroids of high potency, such as clobetasol propionate cream, are used to treat specific diseases affecting less than 10% of the body surface.
  • Steroid-sparing medications: These medications impact the immune system by preventing the body's white blood cells, which fight disease, from being produced. Azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran) and mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) are two examples. If other treatments haven't worked, the medication rituximab is administered if the signs and symptoms are related to the upper digestive tract or eyes.
  • Antibiotics: Tetracycline antibiotics, typically 200 mg/day of doxycycline, which is useful on its own for moderate illness and has less side effects than oral corticosteroids. This is frequently used with niacinamide, a B vitamin.
  • Other Medicines: Patients are frequently treated with immune-suppressive medicines in more severe situations. These drugs include, among others, Rituximab, Methotrexate, Azathioprine, and Mycophenolate Mofetil.

Self-Care & Home Remedies

  • Avoid sun exposure: Steer clear of the sun for an extended period of time on any skin area where bullous pemphigoid is present. Blisters should be treated every day.
  • Adopt a sensible lifestyle: Avoid clear of hard, crunchy meals like chips and raw fruits and vegetables since these exacerbate symptoms.
  • Limit the Activities: It is difficult to walk or carry out daily tasks when one has blisters on the hands or feet. The patient must alter their regimen till the blisters subside.

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Market Players

Treatment Products

Abbvie, Inc.


Akari Therapeutics, Plc.


Pfizer Inc.



Adoxa CK

Novartis AG


Amgen, Inc.

Adoxa TT

Eli Lilly and Company


Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH


Bristol Myers Squibb Company


GlaxoSmithKline, Plc.


Crescita Therapeutics


Ractigen Therapeutics


Carocell Bio


Arbor Pharmaceuticals

E.E.S. Granules

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd

Dermovate ®






Competitive Analysis

Globally ageing demographic is increasing the prevalence of this disease, which in turn is increasing the number of therapies that are accessible. An increase in the use of accessible, affordable drugs to treat this illness is driving the demand for treatments. Furthermore, NGOs and healthcare organizations run several awareness efforts that support the expansion of the therapeutic business.

Furthermore, an increase in exposure to particular chemicals or a change in the environment makes the illness worse, which encourages market growth. The bullous pemphigoid medicine market is growing due to a number of causes, including rising treatment awareness, technical advancements, and the rapid adoption of innovative formulations and novel dosage forms.

The DiseaseLandscape Insights consultancy firm provides valuable support in future market trends on the development of new pharmaceutical products. This support helps to streamline the planning and execution of clinical trials of novel medications and treatments, implement effective patient recruitment strategies, ensure regulatory compliance, and increase the likelihood of successful trial outcomes. The below table gives information about some currently ongoing clinical trials, including their study titles and respective stages:

Clinical Trail Assessment

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

A Phase 2/3 Study of Efgartigimod PH20 SC in Adult Participants with Bullous Pemphigoid (BALLAD)

A Phase 3 Study to Evaluate the Long-term Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Efgartigimod PH20 SC in Adult Participants with Bullous Pemphigoid

Efficacy and Safety of add-on Dapsone Versus add-on Methotrexate in Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid


A Phase 2/3 Study of Efgartigimod PH20 SC in Adult Participants with Bullous Pemphigoid (BALLAD)

Influence of Dermocorticoids on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid


Ozonated Olive Oil in Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris and Bullous Pemphigoid



DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) provides key players in the production of medicinal items with vital information and experience. With the help of DLI, market participants more easily plan and execute clinical trials for novel drugs and pharmaceuticals, patient recruitment strategies, and regulatory compliance.

On the whole, this motivates the leaders to investigate manufacturing companies, conduct qualitative research, and find out about raw material suppliers. All industry participants gain a stronger foothold in the Temporal Arteritis Disease Domain and keep one step ahead with the help of DLI.

Furthermore, DLI offers guidance on how to maintain regulatory compliance when using clinical knowledge for evidence-based approaches, coming up with innovative tactics for product development, fostering key stakeholder engagement, and more.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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