Arteriosclerosis Disease

Published Date : Nov 2023
Category : Autoimmune Diseases
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Arteriosclerosis - Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Market Trends and Treatments

Arteriosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a build-up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques predominantly comprise lipids that induce an inflammatory reaction causing turbulent flow with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In arteriosclerosis, the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body (arteries) become thick and stiff sometimes controlling blood flow to the organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic. But over a period, the walls in the arteries harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries. According to NCBI, atherosclerosis is the primary cause of about 50% of all deaths in Westernized society.

There are three main types of arteriosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis – It is the gradual buildup of plaque (atheroma) in the walls of medium and large arteries like the aorta, coronary arteries, carotid arteries, femoral arteries, and Iliac arteries. Where plaque builds up in the innermost layer of the artery wall (tunica intima).

Arteriolosclerosis – It affects small arteries called arterioles, they’re the connectors between larger arteries and capillaries. They play an important role in controlling your blood pressure, or how forcefully blood moves through the body.

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis – Also called medial arterial calcification. It shows there’s calcium buildup in the middle layer of the artery wall (tunica media). Calcification of this middle layer causes the artery wall to harden. This often happens in people older than 50 years, but it may happen sooner if a person has certain medical conditions (like chronic kidney disease). This condition can cause blood flow problems and raise your risk for cardiovascular complications.

Atherosclerosis arises from an accumulation of a sticky material called plaque inside the artery. The most common cause of mortality in the US is a disease linked to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis affects around half of Americans between the ages of 45 and 84 who have atherosclerosis and don’t know about it. The slow development of atherosclerosis is caused by plaque formed by blood components such as cholesterol, fat, and red blood cells. The accumulation of plaque narrows arteries. As a result, the body's essential organ tissues receive less blood that is rich in oxygen.

Mild atherosclerosis usually does not show symptoms until an artery is so narrowed or clogged that it cannot supply enough blood to organs and tissues. Sometimes a blood clot completely blocks blood flow and generates a heart attack or stroke. Atherosclerosis affects most of the arteries in the body, including arteries in the heart, brain, arms, legs, pelvis, as well as kidneys. Based on which arteries are affected, it has different names: Coronary Artery disease (CAD) is plaque buildup in the arteries of the heart, Peripheral artery disease (PAD) most often is plaque buildup in the arteries of the legs, but it can also build up in your arms or pelvis, Carotid artery disease is plaque build-up in the neck arteries. It reduces blood flow to the brain. Renal artery stenosis is plaque buildup in the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. Atherosclerosis is vertebral artery disease in the arteries that supply blood to the back of the brain. Reduced blood flow shows symptoms such as angina. Blockages in arteries cause complications, including heart attack, stroke, vascular dementia, erectile dysfunction, or limb loss. Atherosclerosis can cause death and disability.

The most common risk factors include hypercholesterolemia (LDL-cholesterol), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and age for males older than 45 years and females older than 55 years, as well as strong family history. Also, a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, diets high in saturated and trans-fatty acids, and certain genetic mutations play a vital role in contributing to risk. While a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is considered a risk factor, pharmacological therapy increasing HDL-cholesterol generated negative results raising concerns about the role of HDL in ASCVD.

The major cause of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic disease that mainly involves the heart and brain are ischemic heart disease (IHD) and ischemic stroke, which are the world's first and fifth causes of death respectively.

 As stated by NCBI, in the US every year about 610,000 people die of heart disease. That is 1 of every 4 deaths. In the Western world, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death killing over 370,000 people annually. On average, about 735,000 Americans suffer from heart attacks every year. Out of these, 525,000 have a primary attack, and 210,000 have a recurrent attack. It has been reported that the highest incidence of plaque rupture was observed in men over 45 years, which is 75% of acute myocardial infarctions occur from plaque rupture whereas, in women, the incidence increases past age 50 years. This higher incidence of atherosclerosis in men compared to women is credited to the protective function of female sex hormones but is lost after menopause. It is reported that ~795,000 people suffer from stroke every year in the US resulting in ~140,323 deaths. The major form of stroke is due to ASCVD.

Major stakeholders in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors have been actively trying to alleviate the burden of Atherosclerosis in the face of this challenging health crisis. Pharmaceutical firms, medical device makers, and healthcare services are among the market leaders. They are involved in a variety of initiatives aimed at preventing, detecting, and treating heart attacks in novel ways.

DiseaseLandscape Insights assists industry participants by offering extensive knowledge about all current market players, their inventions, tactics, and partnerships, as well as assisting in the selection of the appropriate marketplace to develop exponentially and work for improved health outcomes.

Arteriosclerosis Diagnostic Analysis:

Due to numerous research initiatives that are creating precise and accurate diagnostic methodologies and tests, the global market for heart failure diagnostics is expanding along with the burden of death from heart failure. The following are the main diagnostic categories that substantially impact the market, based on several variables such as a patient's symptoms, medical history, and the development of diagnostic technology.

Physical Examination:

Physical examination is the first step in diagnosing Arteriosclerosis. Here medical professionals ask for the patient's medical history, list of medications, and symptoms, and measure heart rate and weight. It also involves an examination of lifestyle habits such as smoking or vaping, physical activity, and eating habits. Patient's personal health history of medical conditions that may affect risk, including diabetes and inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.

Blood Test:

To check blood sugar and cholesterol levels blood tests are usually done. High levels of blood sugar and cholesterol increase the risk of atherosclerosis. A C-reactive protein (CRP) test also is done to check for a protein linked to inflammation of the arteries.

Imaging Test:

Other tests demonstrate how well the heart is functioning or provide images of the heart and its surroundings:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG):

An electrocardiogram is a simple, painless test that detects and records the heart’s electrical activity. An EKG measures the speed of fast heartbeats, whether the rhythm of heartbeats is steady or irregular, and the strength and timing of the electrical impulses passing through each part of the heart.


  • Cardiac MRI:

An MRI is a sophisticated imaging procedure that captures images of the heart and its surroundings. It helps evaluate how well the heart works, how big it is, and whether the heart muscle has changed. Doctors utilize a cardiac MRI to find the root of the heart failure. The INUMAC, the strongest MRI scanner in the world, costs $270 million and the system produces 11.75 Tesla, which is powerful enough to lift 60 tons.


  • Angiography

It is a special type of X-ray using a dye. This procedure is used to check the arteries in the heart, neck, brain, or other areas of the body. High-frequency X-ray machines from Allenger’s MARS 40-80 KW line are designed specifically for all general radiography and fluoroscopy applications, and prices range from $100 to $2000, depending on the model.


  • Cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

MRI detects tissue damage or problems with blood flow in the heart or coronary arteries. Doctors could utilize a cardiac MRI to find the root of the heart failure. The INUMAC, the strongest MRI scanner in the world, costs $270 million and the system produces 11.75 Tesla, which is powerful enough to lift 60 tons.


  • Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET scanning evaluates blood flow through the small blood vessels of the heart. This is a type of nuclear heart scan that can diagnose coronary microvascular disease.


  • Coronary Computed Tomography (CT)

Coronary Computed Tomographic angiography shows the insides of coronary arteries rather than an invasive cardiac catheterization. It is a non-invasive imaging test using CT scanning.


  • Coronary Calcium Scan

A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of the heart that measures the amount of calcium in the walls of coronary arteries. A buildup of calcium, or calcifications, is a sign of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease.

Diagnostic Market Players:

Imaging Tests

Blood Tests

Meditech Equipment

Roche Diagnostics

General Electric Company (GE Healthcare)

Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD)


Abbott Laboratories

Siemens Healthineers

Hologic, Inc.

Med Imaging Solutions


Radiance Imaging system


Philips Healthcare



Diagnostic Products:

Imaging Tests

Blood Tests

Cardios® pro








SIGNA™ Pioneer


Discovery™ MI



Arteriosclerosis Treatment Analysis:

Living a heart-healthy lifestyle is important for treating and preventing atherosclerotic plaque accumulation throughout a lifetime.

Steps for Heart-healthy lifestyle changes include:

  • Choose heart-healthy foods - like DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) eating plan. A heart-healthy eating plan comprises fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and limits saturated fats, sodium (salt), and added sugars.
  • Be Physically Active - Routine physical activity helps manage risk factors such as high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. Adults should engage in about 150 minutes or more per week of moderate physical activity.
  • Aim for a healthy weight - Losing just 3% to 5% of your current weight can help you manage some coronary heart disease risk factors, like high blood cholesterol and diabetes. Better amounts of weight loss also improve blood pressure readings.
  • Limit in alcohol drinking - Drinking less is better for health than drinking more. Men should bound their drinking to 2 drinks or less in a day. Women should drink 1 drink or less per day.
  • Manage stress -Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve emotional and physical health.
  • Quit smoking and avoid second-hand smoke.
  • Get enough good-quality sleep - The suggested amount for adults is 7 to 9 hours of sleep a day.



Medicines help to manage risk factors and treat atherosclerosis or its complications. Doctors also prescribe medicines to treat other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, that deteriorate plaque buildup.


Medicines used to treat atherosclerosis are listed below:

  • ACE inhibitors and beta blockers assist in lowering blood pressure and lowering the heart's workload. It relaxes blood arteries hence the heart pumps blood more easily.
  • Anti-platelet or anti-clotting medicines help reduce the risk of complications for people who have atherosclerosis. Aspirin is not suggested for most people.
  • Calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels.
  • Medicines to control blood sugar - such as Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin, and Liraglutide, help lower the risk for complications in patients who have atherosclerosis and diabetes.
  • Metformin - helps control plaque buildup if a person has diabetes.
  • Nitrates - such as Nitro-glycerine, dilate coronary arteries and relieve or prevent chest pain from angina.
  • Ranolazine - treats coronary microvascular disease and chest pain.
  • Statins - treat unhealthy blood cholesterol levels. Doctors recommend a statin if a person has a higher risk for coronary heart disease or stroke or if a person has diabetes and is between ages 40 and 75.
  • Other cholesterol-lowering medicines, such as Ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitor, bempedoic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids, are used if a person is unable to take statins or when statins have not driven to treat unhealthy blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • Thrombolytic medicines, sometimes called clot busters, are used to treat blood clots caused by atherosclerosis. These medicines dissolve blood clots that block arteries, causing a stroke, heart attack, mesenteric Ischemia, and other problems. Preferably, the medicine should be given as soon as possible.

Procedures or surgeries:

A patient needs a procedure, heart surgery, or other types of surgery to treat disease resulting from plaque buildup. The type of procedure or surgery depends on the arteries affected.

  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) unlocks coronary arteries that are narrowed or blocked by the buildup of plaque. A stent, a small mesh tube is usually implanted after PCI to prevent the artery from narrowing again.
  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) increases blood flow to the heart by using normal arteries from the chest wall or veins from the legs to bypass the blocked arteries. Surgeons usually use CABG to treat people who have severe plaque buildup in arteries in the heart. Bypass grafting also treats arteries in other parts of the body, such as the arteries leading to the intestines.
  • Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization or Coronary Endarterectomy treats severe angina associated with coronary heart disease when other treatments are too risky or do not work.
  • Carotid Endarterectomy treats carotid artery disease. Other treatment options for this disease include angioplasty and carotid artery stenting.
  • Weight-loss surgery helps reduce inflammation leading to plaque buildup in people who have severe obesity.
  • Angioplasty opens narrowed or blocked arteries. Doctors use angioplasty to treat peripheral artery disease affecting the legs, in the arteries of the heart to treat coronary heart disease, or in the neck to treat carotid artery disease. The doctor may inflate a small balloon in the artery to help flatten the plaque. Occasionally the balloon is coated with medicine to aid the artery heal. The doctor also inserts a small mesh tube called a stent to reduce the chances of the artery narrowing again.


Treatment Market Players

                                                                          Drug Market Players



Pfizer, Inc.


BTA Pharmaceuticals, Inc.




Novartis AG


Bayers AG


Bristol-Myers Squibb Company


Merck & Co., Inc.



                                                                             Devices Market Players



Abiomed Inc.



Ellipse™ ICD

Medtronic Plc

Entrant™ ICD

OMRON Corporation


Boston Scientific Corporation



Regulatory Framework

New Regulatory Guidelines Updates Provided by DiseaseLandscape Insights (DLI) are incredibly beneficial for expanding businesses. These updates guarantee that businesses stay in compliance with changing industry standards, steer clear of potential legal obstacles, and improve their development and promotion processes.

On 6 June 2023, TGA removed Premium MP50K manufactured by Sini Australia Pty Ltd, which is no longer permitted to be supplied.

Take advice from a medical practitioner if you have been taking this medicine for treating thyroid disorders, stroke, vascular dementia, angina, arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, reducing harmful cholesterol and improving cardiovascular well-being, preventing cerebrovascular disease, or for 'liver problems'.

It is not recommended for customers to take expired medications, since the final batch of this medication (05282A) expired in January 2023.

Market Trends:

The Texas Heart Institute® (THI) was recently granted a two-year, $1.14 million grant by The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to develop a novel, first-in-class drug to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) as an important development to current treatment schedules precisely for adverse events ascending from atherosclerosis. The award was given on August 20, 2023.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cardiovascular disease will account for one in every five deaths in the United States in 2021, with one death from CVD occurring every 33 seconds globally.

Lipid-lowering statin treatments are part of the conventional therapeutic methods; nevertheless, even with these medications, many patients experience potentially fatal events that are frequently brought on by lingering inflammatory concerns. It has been demonstrated in several well-known clinical trials that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease and that, even in the absence of statin medication, reducing inflammation can lessen adverse cardiac events. Even in patients getting the highest caliber of treatment now, addressing this persistent inflammation can have a major positive impact on clinical results.

In addition to lipid-lowering approaches, current treatments for atherosclerosis typically target risk factors associated with cardiovascular events after plaque rupture.

DLI helps for the importance of new technology developments and studies on pertinent medications cannot be emphasized. This technology increases the effectiveness of currently accessible medications and discovers fresh therapeutic targets for potential future research.

Clinical Trial Assessment:

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Intravascular Narrow Field Magnetic Resonance Arterial Wall Imaging

Efficacy and Safety of Alprostadil Liposomes for Injection in the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Occlusive Disease of the Lower Extremities-A Phase II Multi-center Randomised Controlled Trial

A Phase III, Multicentre, Multinational, Randomized, Parallel Group, Double-blind Trial of Clopidogrel Versus Placebo in High-risk Patients Aged 45 Years and Older, at Risk of Atherothrombotic Events, and Who Are Receiving Background Therapy Including Low-dose ASA.

Early Prevention of atheroma Progression

The Effect of Beta-Blockers, Aspirin, and Natural Habituation on Procoagulant Activity, Expression of Cellular Adhesion Molecules, and Endothelial Activation in Response to Acute Mental Stress: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Dietary Nitrate/Nitrite as Sources of Bioactive Nitric Oxide in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Phase 3 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of MK-0616 in Reducing Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Participants at High Cardiovascular Risk

Evaluation of Antiplatelet Therapy in Lower Limb Endovascular Treatment

Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Using an Engineered Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor to Treat Lower Limb Intermittent Claudication

The Effect of Beta-Blockers, Aspirin, and Natural Habituation on Procoagulant Activity, Expression of Cellular Adhesion Molecules, and Endothelial Activation in Response to Acute Mental Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

68Ga-DOTATATE PET-CTA Imaging for the Early Detection of Progressing Coronary Atherosclerosis

Individualizing Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - The IDEAL-PCI Extended Registry

A Prospective, Multicenter, Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Lutonix Catheter vs. Standard Balloon Angioplasty for Treatment of Femoropopliteal Arteries with and Without Stenting.

A Prospective, Multicenter, Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Lutonix Catheter vs. Standard Balloon Angioplasty for Treatment of Femoropopliteal Arteries with and Without Stenting.

Phase 3 Study of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids of Omega 3 as an Anti-Platelet Agent on Biomarkers of Cardiac Necrosis Including CKMB and Troponin I and Inflammation Marker CRP

Effects of Estrogen Replacement on Atherosclerosis Progression in Recently Menopausal Women



Arteriosclerosis is typically a chronic ailment that needs constant care to avoid consequences. If Arteriosclerosis is not treated, a life-threatening consequence results from the heart attack.

It's crucial to practice lifelong prevention for the health of the heart. Always get in touch with a doctor if suddenly have any new or strange symptoms that could point to a cardiac condition. Since heart failure usually lasts a long time, symptoms will most likely get worse with time. Surgery and medication help with symptom relief, but if you have severe heart failure, these therapies might not be effective. Heart failure occasionally endangers life.

DLI's services make it easier for market players to conduct clinical studies for new drugs and treatments. It also helps with other tasks including patient recruiting and regulatory compliance. DLI also gives industry participants comprehensive information about rivals in the market, market expansion, and new laws and regulations worldwide.

Vishal SawantBusiness Development

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